However, we should be careful to diagnose concomitant acute rejec

However, we should be careful to diagnose concomitant acute rejection and BKVN. A previous report suggested that the diagnosis of acute rejection concurrent with BKVN should only be considered with findings of endarteritis, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, glomerulitis, or C4d deposits along peritubular capillaries.[4] Another study suggested that tubulitis in BKVN may represent antiviral or non-specific host immunity.[5] Concerning the treatment of BKVN, a reduction in immunosuppressive therapy is the first step.[4] However, acute rejection is induced in about one-quarter of patients because of

the reduction of immunosuppression.[8] click here In the present case, we could not conclude that acute cellular rejection was not associated with these pathological changes at diagnosis. The treatment of such a case is controversial. In some studies, anti-rejection therapy, such as steroid pulse therapy, in addition

to anti-BKV therapy has been successful, while other studies have reported poor LY2109761 nmr outcomes.[8, 9] The extent to which immunosuppression can be reduced without inducing acute rejection is a serious issue. The most common strategy is reducing calcineurin inhibitor and MMF treatment.[4] Although adjustment of the calcineurin inhibitor dose is usually based on trough levels, the trough MMF level is not correlated with area under the blood concentration time curve (AUC) values.[10] When a transplant patient has been administered a fixed dose of MMF, there is individual variability in MPA AUC values, regardless of organ type.[11] Therefore, more accurate dosing of MMF by TDM is required. TDM of MPA based on LSS is preferred in solid organ transplantation compared with drug dosing that is based on single MPA (trough) concentrations.[10] We used five points (C0 to C4) for the monitoring strategy, based on the method of the Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital. In general,

30–60 mg·h/L seems to be a reasonable target level of MPA AUC0–12 for the early post-transplant period.[12, 13] In our case, despite the reduction of MMF, the level of MPA AUC0–12 was 60 mg·h/L, Liothyronine Sodium which is at the upper end of the recommended target level. These data revealed that a fixed dose of MMF can lead to excessive immunosuppression. A recent study demonstrated that MPA AUC0–12 values >50 mg·h/L were risk factors for BK virus infection.[14] Hereafter, we may have to further adjust the dosage of MMF or change MMF to the other immunosuppressive agent. Although the routine use of TDM of MPA cannot be recommended on the basis of the available evidence, specific patient populations, including recipients at high immunological risk and patients who are undergoing reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, as in our present case, might benefit.[10] In conclusion, we have successfully treated BKVN without inducing acute rejection.

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