However, 10 μg of antigen were required to induce local IgG and I

However, 10 μg of antigen were required to induce local IgG and IgA in 100% of the vaccinated mice. At a first view, systemic vaccination seemed to be more effective than local vaccination

regarding the antigen dose required Crizotinib nmr to induce systemic HAI and IgG titers. On the contrary, 1 μg HAC1 given systemically was not sufficient to induce local IgA titers. In fact, this study was not designed to compare dose-sparing effects of local versus systemic applications, but rather to evaluate an additive effect of combined adjuvants. The systemic administration was only used as a control for the vaccination protocol as well as antigen stability and not meant as a comparative group to evaluate superior efficacy of the respiratory vaccination to the systemic vaccination. The importance of mucosal IgA during PI3K Inhibitor Library mouse influenza infection and its ability to neutralize virus in infected epithelial cells has previously been shown [24] and [25]. Also the role of IgA in cross-protection against drifted virus strains has been shown to contribute to protection, albeit it is not essential [26] and [27]. New insights into immune protection have altered second generation influenza vaccines from being designed to induce systemic IgG toward the induction of broader cross-protective responses against the virus, including other antibody

isotypes, such as IgA. This new protection strategy combines the induction of systemic and local as well as humoral and cellular immune responses [25]. In this study, the double-adjuvanted vaccine demonstrated the ability to induce systemic functional antibody responses as well as local cellular immune responses suggesting the advantage of combining proper adjuvants and the relevance

of immunizing at the site of infection. Even though a challenge study would be necessary to prove that the local and systemic immune responses observed here can provide protection against influenza virus infection, there is convincing evidence in the literature that the MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit measured immune responses discussed above have been linked to protective efficacy [28], [29] and [30]. For example, Liu et al. compared different routes of immunization and their effect on local and systemic immune responses and combined this with lung protection against an influenza infection [29]. Their results regarding the induction of mucosal IgA, serum IgG and systemic HAI titers after vaccine administration into the lower airways of the lung were in line with the results presented above. They detected only in the primed intrapulmonary immunization mucosal sIgA in the lung, but not the intramuscular administration. Furthermore, they observed the highest nasal and lung IgG titers in mice primed (and boosted) via the mucosal route [29]. Of note, the challenge study performed by Liu et al.

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