g. affective flattening, anhedonia, attentional impairment), and present antipsychotic medications are associated with several adverse effects (e.g. weight gain and metabolic syndrome, somnolence, dyskinesia, liver toxicity). Thus, there is considerable interest in treatments for psychotic disorders that target pathways and novel pathophysiologic mechanisms other than those involving the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems.
The role of immune activation and inflammatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mediators are increasingly implicated as causal factors in schizophrenia [Kneeland and Fatemi, 2012; Severance et al. 2012] and as potential therapeutic targets [Muller and Schwarz, 2012]. In a comprehensive review, Leonard and colleagues concluded that in schizophrenia, there is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a ‘chronic, low-grade inflammatory change associated with the active phase
of schizophrenia and that effective treatment largely attenuates these changes’ [Leonard et al. 2012]. A number of strategies that focus on the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical have been considered for the treatment of schizophrenia (e.g. folate [Hill et al. 2011], aspirin [Laan et al. 2010], long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [Das, 2004]). Green tea, a beverage that has been consumed for centuries, contains antioxidant polyphenols, most notably epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), that demonstrate inhibitory effects on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cytokine production [Ahmed et al. 2002; Singal et al. 2006]. Preclinical studies suggest that green tea extract may possibly benefit patients with schizophrenia. For example, green tea extract: (1) enhances learning and memory in aged rats [Kaur et al. 2008]; (2) causes antidepressant-like effects that are comparable to desipramine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [Sattayasai et al. 2008]; (3) ameliorates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behavior [Singal
et al. 2006]; (4) U0126 research buy induces anxiolytic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effects [Vignes et al. 2006]; and (5) reduces reserpine-induced oxidative hepatic damage [Al-Bloushi et al. 2009]. As early as 2000 years ago, Chinese emperors made reference to the calming effects of green tea, but we are not aware of any clinical studies of EGCG’s psychotropic properties. To test the hypothesis that NOS inhibitors are anxiolytic and antipsychotic, we evaluated EGCG as an adjunct to antipsychotic medications in treatment refractory patients with schizophrenia. Bipolar patients Methisazone who experience anxiety and psychotic symptoms similar to schizophrenic patients may benefit from the calming and antipsychotic effects of EGCG, and were also included in the study. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to determine, in a double-blind study, whether EGCG is a useful adjunct to maintenance antipsychotic medication; (2) to evaluate effects of EGCG on mood in schizophrenic patients and bipolar patients; and (3) to determine ECGG effects on plasma inflammatory markers.