fumigatus ΔAfcrzA strain to caspofungin [26] Interestingly, some

fumigatus ΔAfcrzA strain to caspofungin [26]. Interestingly, some of these genes are involved in stress response, such as: (i) the Scf1 homologue (Afu117370), a plasma membrane localized protein that protects membranes

from desiccation and it is induced by heat shock, oxidative stress, osmostress, stationary phase entry, glucose depletion, oleate and alcohol, and is regulated by the HOG and Ras-Pka pathways http://​www.​yeastgenome.​org[27]; (ii) TipA (Afu2g07540), a component of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, that interacts physically and genetically with Tap42p, which regulates protein phosphatase 2A [28]; and (iii) a protein phosphatase Foretinib price 2C (Afu4g00720), important physiological regulator of cell growth and of cellular stress signaling [29]. The increased mRNA accumulation of these genes could mean that they are directly or indirectly repressed by AfCrzA and can open new frontiers for studying biochemical pathways that are under influence of the A. fumigatus calcineurin-CrzA pathway. We then Selumetinib solubility dmso used RT-PCR, both to assess the reliability of the microarray hybridizations and to document mRNA expression from selected genes of interest in the wild type, ΔAfcalA and ΔAfcrzA mutant backgrounds, choosing five

genes (three and two with decreased and increased mRNA accumulation in the microarray experiments, respectively) to analyze after 10 and 30 minutes in the presence of 200 mM CaCl2. We had previously shown that five

other genes (such as Afu8g05010, C2H2 finger domain protein; Afu4g03960, C6 transcription factor; Afu2g16520, phospholipase D; and Afu2g05330, vacuolar H+/Ca+2 exchanger; and Afu2g13060, calcineurin binding protein), identified here in this screening had induced mRNA accumulation in the presence of calcium, but reduced in ΔAfcrzA mutant background [16]. Expressing the results as fold induction relative to expression prior to calcium exposure, all values were in strong agreement with array hybridisation data (Figure 1). Comparisons between the gene expression variation estimated by microarray and real-time RT-PCR were performed by calculating both Pearson’s (R P) and Spearman’s (R S) correlation coefficients for the log2 ratios obtained by these two approaches. Metformin price Positive correlation was observed for both R P and R S in all nine genes (Figure 1) [16]. Furthermore, the value of either R P or R S was above 0.70 (indicating moderate-to-strong correlation). Thus, these data suggest that our Selleckchem 8-Bromo-cAMP approach was able to provide information about A. fumigatus gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Figure 1 Validation of the genes observed as more or less induced in the A. fumigatus ΔAfcrzA mutant. Fold increase in mRNA levels after the incubation with 200 mM CaCl2 for 10 and 30 minutes of (A) AfrcnA (Afu2g13060), (B) AfrfeF (Afu4g10200), (C) Af BAR adaptor protein (Afu3g14230), (D) Af AAA ATPase (Afu4g04800), and (E) AfScf1 (Afu1g17370).

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