For example, at 6 or 7 years after transplantation,


For example, at 6 or 7 years after transplantation,

Keene et al. [46] demonstrated grafted cell survival, as shown by the various striatal markers found within the grafted MAPK inhibitor tissue. However, basic markers of cell cytoarchitecture such as haematoxylin & eosin and Nissl reveal that grafted cells depict a morphology very different from host cells [43]. Cells within p-zones are ballooned, vacuolated, lack structural cytoplasmic integrity and even stain positively for apoptotic markers such as caspase-3. When identical immunohistological stainings are compared between the reports by Keene and Cicchetti, and those published for the 6- [22] and 18-month post-transplantation cases [42], it is apparent that grafted striatal projection neurones exhibit a much weaker staining and that they lack dendritic extensions almost completely

[43,45], pointing to a rather unhealthy morphology. In contrast, various subclasses of striatal interneurones including NADPH-d-, ChAT-, parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive cells, show a better long-term survival, suggesting a degeneration or neuronal sparing pattern similar to that observed with HD pathology [42,43,46]. Although there may be signs of degeneration PI3K inhibitor within the grafted tissue, ingrowth of host-derived TH fibres can be observed, suggesting connections and interactions between the host and donor cells [43,46]. These results are in accordance with earlier animal model studies as well as transplanted PD patients [55,56]. Such TH innervation was not found in the 10-year post-transplantation case depicting cysts and mass lesions [45], suggesting that TH innervation of grafted tissue is not a random process. However, DARPP-32-

and calbindin-positive Dimethyl sulfoxide cells within the grafts do not appear to cross the graft–host interface, suggesting a limited connectivity of the graft with the host brain [46]. One study reported the presence of cortical glutamatergic input onto the grafted striatal cells, using both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy [43]. Moreover, a notable microglial and astrocytic gliosis was observed in the vicinity of grafted tissue 9–10 years after transplantation [43,44], while such a response was found to be less intense in the graft than in the host at earlier intervals (6 and 7 years) [46]. Finally, elements associated to vasculature and vasculature network, such as endothelial cells and capillaries [stained with Von Willebrand factor (vWF)], pericytes [using platelet derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) as a marker] and larger-calibre blood vessels [detected with the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) marker], demonstrated poor revascularization of the grafted tissue [44].

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