For detection of Stat5, CD69+ thymocytes from Egr2f/f and Egr2f/f CD4Cre littermates were purified to 99% purity on MACS columns (Miltenyi Biotech) using Strepatividin-conjugated beads. In total, 0.5×106 thymocytes were stimulated in RPMI-1640, 10% FBS with or without IL-7
(6 ng/mL) for the times indicated. Total cell extract was analysed by Western blot using anti-pStat5 (pY694) and anti-Stat5 (BD transduction laboratories). To assay death in Sorafenib thymocytes, thymocytes were cultured on anti-CD3-coated plates, on uncoated plates, or in the presence of 200 ng/mL dexamethasone (Sigma). Apoptotic and dead cells were visualised with AnnexinV (Nexins Research or BD Biosciences) and DAPI (Sigma) staining, respectively. For IL-7 survival assays, CD69+ thymocytes from Egr2f/f and Egr2f/fCD4Cre mice were purified
on MACS columns (Miltenyi Biotech), stained with CD4 and CD8 fluorescent-conjugated antibodies, and sorted on a Moflo, to obtain CD4+CD8lo populations to 99.9% purity. CD4+CD8lo thymocytes were cultured in 96-well plates with 6 ng/mL IL-7 (R&D Systems) for the indicated times. Cells were harvested and overall cell recovery was determined by counting in a haemocytometer. A proportion of cells were then stained for CD4 and CD8; at the 72 h PLX-4720 concentration timepoint, all cells remained CD4+CD8lo and had not differentiated further (Supporting Information Fig. 4). Statistical significance was calculated using a two-tailed student’s t-test where p values are shown. This work
was supported by Cancer Research UK and RVX-208 the Institute of Cancer Research. The authors thank Fredrik Wallberg, Derek Davies, Demelza Bird, Mathew Sargent and Vladimir Grigoriev for technical assistance, and Patrick Costello and Richard Treisman for helpful discussions. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“The economic consequences of bovine diarrhea are serious. Few long-term epidemiological data are available concerning the causative pathogens of bovine diarrhea in Japan. From 2002 to 2011, surveillance of enteric pathogens was performed in cows of various breed and age from 302 farms in which diarrhea had occurred in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Differences between dairy and beef cows in the number of cases of diarrhea and rates of infection by Salmonella spp. and Eimeria spp. were found. Clinical symptoms (duration of epidemic, hematochezia and complications) caused by bovine rotavirus infection were milder than those caused by bovine coronavirus infection.