Finally, this review provides an update on the environmental fate

Finally, this review provides an update on the environmental fate of ILs. Their exploitation in green processes is still limited due to their low degradability but research is currently under way to design new more eco-friendly ILs. Copyright (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: In patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, guidelines recommend carotid revascularization within 2 weeks of the index event. The “”index event”" may be defined as either the first or the most recent event. The delay between the index event and carotid endarterectomy

(CEA) over a period of 6 years in a single centre was evaluated and the effect of defining the index event as either the first or the most recent event was assessed.

Design: Observational study.

Methods: 555 consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis >= 50% treated with CEA between 2007 and MEK162 mw 2012 were assessed. In 2010, changes to the in-hospital process of care to reduce delays in referral and selleck compound CEA were

introduced. These changes included, for example, improving access to physicians, imaging, and operating rooms. The delay from symptoms to surgery was expressed in days.

Results: The median time between the first event and surgery was reduced from 53 days (interquartile range [IQR] 30-78) in 2007 to 21 days (IQR 12-45) in 2012, and between the most recent event and CEA from 45 days (IQR 28-67) to 17 days (IQR 9-28). Patients referred directly by their general practitioner more often underwent CEA within 2 weeks than patients referred by specialists from other hospitals. Compared to patients with transient ischaemic attack or ocular symptoms, patients with ischaemic stroke more often underwent CEA within 2 weeks.

Conclusions: A small change in the process of care significantly

reduced the delay from the index event to CEA, but in 2012 it still exceeded 14 days in the majority of patients. The definition of the “”index event”" has a large impact on the total duration of delay, and should therefore be uniform across studies. (C) 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. selleck screening library Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The dissolution of wood and the regeneration of compounds such as cellulose and lignin is one of the challenges currently facing biorefineries. Lignin can be processed and employed for value-added products; therefore, environmentally friendly methods for wood solubilization and lignin regeneration are required and ionic liquids (ILs) offer an attractive alternative approach.

RESULTS: Dissolution of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus woods in imidazolium-based ILs ( 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) was studied as well as the regeneration of lignin from wood liquors.

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