Finally, the actin-bundling protein LPL induces

the requi

Finally, the actin-bundling protein LPL induces

the required F-actin rigidity for receptor stabilization. Thus, recruitment of LPL to the IS is crucial for sustained LFA-1 cluster formation within the IS. LPL associates with LFA-1 in unstimulated and stimulated T cells. Therefore, LPL may stabilize LFA-1 in its localization in both situations. A similar mechanism was suggested for avidity regulation by F-actin 32. Whether LPL is also CHIR-99021 cost involved in the active transport of LFA-1 or whether LFA-1 moves through diffusion to the contact zone is currently unknown. In addition to LPL, Talin is one candidate that associates with LFA-1 1, 33. Whether LPL acts in concert with Talin is not known at present. However, in LPL knock-down T cells the relocalization of Talin in the contact zone was severely disturbed, indicating that Talin acts downstream of LPL. It is tempting to speculate that calmodulin regulates LFA-1 localization in the IS by stabilizing LPL. Interestingly, LPL binds to calmodulin only in the presence of EGTA, whereas calcium

even inhibits this interaction. These results suggested a binding to calcium-free calmodulin (ApoCalmodulin) 27. However, the exact mechanisms of LPL/calmodulin interaction in vivo remains to be determined. Nevertheless, up to now, only very little was known about the AZD8055 supplier function of calmodulin for T-cell polarization. It was demonstrated that calmodulin regulates the myosin light chain kinase 34, 35. Antagonizing calmodulin led to a reduction in cell spreading and migration on surface coated ICAM-1 34. This finding supports our results demonstrating that calmodulin antagonists reduce the T-cell/APC interface. In addition, our data provide evidence for an unusual function of calmodulin by introducing a direct connection of calmodulin with LFA-1 cluster stabilization during T-cell activation. The TCR/CD3 complex migrated to the IS independent of LPL expression. This Cytidine deaminase difference is likely caused by the fact that CD3 does not bind to LPL and uses distinct linkers to the actin cytoskeleton. Note that the superantigens used to

stimulate PBT represent rather strong stimuli and bind outside the peptide-binding groove. So far, we cannot judge whether TCR/CD3 recruitment to the IS through (weak) agonistic peptide-antigens would be influenced in a different way. Taken together, we introduced new proteins that are important for the sustained – but not initial – accumulation of LFA-1 in the mature IS, i.e. LPL and calmodulin. The combined functions of these two proteins control the size, molecular composition and duration of the T-cell/APC interface, which is fundamental for the activation of T cells. These findings might also be relevant for other actin-dependent functions that require receptor polarization, e.g. cell migration and/or extravasation.

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