fibrillar type 1 collagens. In parallel experiments, SMCs on fibrillar collagen were co-stimulated with PDGF-BB/IL-1 beta. These physical and chemical factors induced common SMC cycle signaling events, including up-regulations of cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 and cyclins A/D1, phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) and its dissociations
with E2F2/3. The physical and chemical inductions of SMC cycle signaling BKM120 price and progression were oppositely regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Fibrillar collagen degraded p66Shc, whose Ser36-phosphorylation plays important roles in the modulation of SMC cycle. Monomeric collagen and PDGF-BB/IL-1 beta co-stimulation induced p66Shc expression and Ser36-phosphorylation through beta(1) integrin and PDGF receptor-beta, respectively. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that fibrillar collagen-regulated p66Shc converges the physical and chemical stimuli to modulate SMC cycle and Rapamycin proliferation through PI3K-mediated Akt and p38 MAPK and their opposite regulation in downstream common cell cycle signaling cascades. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: The ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are LXR-target genes that play an important role in reverse cholesterol transport.
We examined the effects of inhibitors of the cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe) and synthesis (statins) on expression of these transporters in HepG2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with primary (and nonfamilial) hypercholesterolemia (HC). Materials & methods: A total of 48 HC individuals were treated Caspase inhibitor clinical trial with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks) and 23 were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day/4 weeks), followed by simvastatin (10 mg/day/8 weeks) and simvastatin plus ezetimibe (10 mg of each/day/4 weeks). Gene expression was examined in statin- or ezetimibe-treated and control HepG2 cells as well as PBMCs using real-time PCR. Results: In PBMCs, statins and ezetimibe downregulated ABCA1
and ABCG1 mRNA expression but did not modulate NR1H2 (LxR-beta) and NR1H3 (LXR-alpha) levels. Positive correlations of ABCA1 with ABCG1 and of NR1H2 with NR1H3 expressions were found in all phases of the treatments. In HepG2 cells, ABCA1 mRNA levels remained unaltered while ABCG1 expression was increased by statin (1.0-10.0 mu M) or ezetimibe (5.0 mu M) treatments. Atorvastatin upregulated NR1H2 and NR1H3 only at 10.0 mu M, meanwhile ezetimibe (1.0-5.0 mu M) downregulated NR1H2 but did not change NR1H3 expression. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that lipid-lowering drugs downregulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression in PBMCs of HC individuals and exhibit differential effects on HepG2 cells. Moreover, they indicate that the ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcript levels were not correlated directly to LXR mRNA expression in both cell models treated with lipid-lowering drugs.