E5K020. Study subjects (n=999) were evaluated by ultrasound (SSD 500 echo camera and 3.5-MHz convex probe; Aloka, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) before treatment in May 1999. Three hundred and seventy-seven subjects were evaluated again in August 2002 by the same ultrasonographer (Q.M.-A.). Only 177 subjects were included in the study because they had completed the planned ultrasound investigations. The degree find more of PPF was graded as F0, FI, FII
and FIII according to the standardized Cairo classification (Cairo Working Group, 1992) and as reported by many authors (Dittrich et al., 1983; Homeida et al., 1991; Mohamed-Ali et al., 1999). In brief, liver size, peripheral portal branches (PPBs), the degree of PPF, the thickness of the PPB wall, spleen size and splenic vein diameter (SVD) were assessed. Livers and spleens were measured as described previously
Selinexor research buy (Abdel-Wahab et al., 1989; Homeida et al., 1996). The portal vein diameter (PVD) was measured at its entrance to the porta hepatis at the lower end of the caudate lobe in subjects who had fasted ∼8–10 h. The thickness of secondary PPB was observed for all subjects with FI–FIII grade of fibrosis. PPF was graded as 0–III. Grade 0 (F0) corresponds to a normal liver, with no thickening of the PPB wall and PPB diameters (outer to outer) ∼2–3 mm. Grade I (FI) corresponds to a pattern of small stretches of fibrosis around secondary portal branches and PPB diameters ∼4 mm. Grade II (FII) still shows the patchy fibrosis observed in FI, but a continuous fibrosis affects most second-order branches, and PPBs appear as long segments of fibrosis. Grade III (FIII) shows a thickening of the walls of most PPBs. A medical history, personal data (name, sex, age and number of pregnancies for married women), current symptoms, number of malaria attacks per year and physical Protein kinase N1 examination for each subject were performed. Informed consent was obtained from each patient or parents in the case of children. spss software was used for statistical analysis. The χ2-test was used to compare the two phenotypes
(regression and progression) in the study subjects. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the University of Gezira, and from the State Ministry of Health, Wad Medani. The study was conducted in Um-Zukra, a Sudanese village highly endemic for S. mansoni. Fibrosis grades in 177 study subjects [82 (46%) males and 95 (54%) females] were reported before and 39 months after treatment (Table 1). The proportions of patients with FI and F0 before therapy were 128 (72.3%) and 0 (0%), respectively, and 74 (41.8%) and 49 (27.7%), respectively, 39 months after treatment. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0001, P=0.000) for FI and F0 before and after treatment. As shown in Table 2 (49, 27.7%), PPF in patients with FI and FII was regressed to F0 39 months after treatment, while in the other patients (14, 7.9%), PPF regressed either from FII to FI (8, 4.5%) or from FIII to FII (6, 3.