Dosage depended on the preparation and mode of application; some treated according to lectin content, others started with a low dosage and increased successively, or started with high dosage and applied it consistently once weekly. For intrapleural and intraperitoneal (repeated) application, VAE was diluted in 5 to 15 ml or 100 ml solution. Treatment duration and follow-up ranged from weeks to, most commonly, months or years. Quality assessment
Table 1, 2 and 6 summarize the validity assessment. Methodological quality differed substantially in the reviewed studies. 19 trials had randomized treatment allocation. The RCTs were mostly small (median sample size n = 60, range 23–692), particularly when investigating survival (median n = 52). find more Although RCTs investigating QoL were only slightly larger (median n = 68), they nevertheless encompass 4 trials I-BET-762 that largely met modern standards of clinical trials and three of them had a sample size above 200. In four of the
RCTs the patients and physicians were blinded; three further RCTs had an active or a placebo control-treatment. – 16 studies were non-randomized (median sample size n = 203, range 82–1442), 15 of them had controlled for confounding by close prospective (in one case retrospective) pair matching, by alternating treatment allocation and by multivariate analysis or propensity score (though in one study only for the main outcome parameter ). – Assurance of data quality according to ICH-GCP (“”Good Clinical Practice”") or GEP (“”Good Epidemiological Adenosine Practice”") guidelines was reported in 5 RCTs and 4 non-RCTs. Eight of the RCTs and 8 of the non-RCTs were embedded in the same large epidemiological cohort study. Most studies did not present a clear documentation of co-interventions. Regarding the other quality aspects, most studies – especially the more recent ones – were reasonably well designed and conducted. In the single-armed studies, study quality was reasonably good except in an unpublished report  and in an abstract
publication  with too little information. Two studies had applied VAE in combination with or subsequent to conventional cancer treatment and one study had explored CIN, which has high spontaneous remission rates. Characteristics of the preclinical studies The in vitro cytotoxicity of different VAEs as well as isolated or recombinant lectins or their A-chain, RG7112 purchase viscotoxins, or other protein fractions were tested with different methods in a variety of human breast, ovarian, uterine, vulvar and cervical cancer cells [12, 20, 22, 81–110] (Table 7). Table 7 In-vitro Studies on Cytotoxicity of VAE in Human Breast or Gynecological Cancer Cells Tumour cell VAE Result Reference Breast cancer MFM-223 Iscador Qu, M, A Iscador P ML I IC50 0.05–0.12 mg/ml 1.