DNA sequence analysis of three clones indicates that the compleme

DNA sequence analysis of three clones indicates that the complementing genes are homologous to, but substantially different from, Lapatinib concentration known polyhydroxyalkanaote synthase-encoding genes. Thus we have demonstrated the ability to isolate diverse genes for polyhydroxyalkanaote synthesis

by functional complementation of defined mutants. Such genes might be of use in the engineering of more efficient systems for the industrial production of bioplastics. The use of functional complementation will also provide a vehicle to probe the genetics of polyhydroxyalkanaote metabolism and its relation to carbon availability in complex microbial assemblages. Petrochemically derived plastics are extremely useful materials, and they dominate many sectors of the industrial economy. Alpelisib in vivo However, they are inherently costly to the environment. They are produced from nonrenewable fossil fuels, their waste accumulates due to their recalcitrance to biodegradation, and their production cost will likely escalate as oil reserves are depleted. There is much interest in developing viable alternatives to these plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are commonly accumulated bacterial intracellular carbon storage polymers (Steinbüchel & Lütke-Eversloh, 2003; Trainer & Charles, 2006; Keshavarz & Roy, 2010). Their function

is to guard against stresses at the level of nutritional carbon and energy balance. Genetic studies of polyhydroxyalkanaote synthesis have been carried out in several bacteria. The central enzyme, polyhydroxyalkanaote

synthase encoded by phaC, catalyses the polymerization of hydroxyacyl-CoA molecules, driven by the energy released from CoA hydrolysis. These polymers are arranged in the cell as inert granules, complexed with associated proteins. Upon starvation or other stress, they can be depolymerized Histamine H2 receptor to provide a source of carbon and energy to sustain the cell. They are thus of central importance to the metabolic functioning of many bacteria. While the most common polyhydroxyalkanaote is poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), the diversity of polyhydroxyalkanaote is significant, with over 150 different possible monomeric constituents present in different combinations within a given polymer (Steinbüchel & Lütke-Eversloh, 2003). This structural diversity is reflected in the wide range of physical properties demonstrated by these polymers. Polyhydroxyalkanaote polymers are being developed for industrial purposes, as biodegradable replacements for fossil-fuel derived plastics, and as materials with unique properties. Major research efforts are focused on developing the ability to produce these materials in an economically competitive manner so that they will be commercially viable. Polyhydroxyalkanaote’s structure is determined in part by polyhydroxyalkanaote synthase’s substrate specificity, and there is considerable interest in determining the basis for such substrate specificity.

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