Despite the large geographic distance between Angola and the othe

Despite the large geographic distance between Angola and the other known locations of MVD, phylogenetic analysis using the complete viral genome sequences put Angolan strains within the same clade as the majority of east African isolates [22]. Whereas CFR for MVD are variable (Table 2), the MARV-Angola strain is thought to be more pathogenic than other MARV strains such as the Musoke strain [23-25]. There has been an increase in EVD outbreaks in Africa, probably as result of increased contact between humans and wildlife because of extensive deforestation, hunting and mining [14]. Ebolavirus species have complete genome sequence divergence of 30–45% [7]. The

CFRs of the different ebolavirus species causing these EVD outbreaks have also varied (Table 3). Ebola virus representing the species Zaire ebolavirus can cause sporadic infections in humans, usually resulting in self-limiting outbreaks [26]. The genetic diversity between EBOV strains so far isolated is low [27]. For instance, two separate outbreaks caused by EBOV occurred in Luebo in the DRC in 2007 and 2008: the sequences of the viruses in these two outbreaks were almost identical and related to previously isolated strains, including the one causing the first reported outbreak in Yambuku in the DRC in 1976 [28]. Most recently, there was an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever

caused Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration by EBOV in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Full genome sequences of EBOV from three patients showed 97% nucleotide

sequence identity to DRC and Gabon strains of EBOV [29, 30]. TAFV, an ebolavirus belonging to a different species (namely, Taï Forest ebolavirus) Glycogen branching enzyme has been found in the Taï Forest, Côte d’Ivoire [6]; however, the outbreak in West Africa was the first ever reported incidence of EBOV infection in this region [31]. In the 2001–2004 EVD outbreaks in the RC and Gabon, nonhuman primates were also affected by EBOV infections, a large decline occurring in their populations just before and during the outbreaks in humans in the same area [10, 32]. A large serological survey during the 2001–2002 outbreak in Gabon found that dogs might be asymptomatically infected with EBOV, probably as a result of eating infected carcasses or licking body fluids from infected patients, and might potentially transmit EBOV infections [33]. As opposed to EBOV, SUDV, representing the species Sudan ebolavirus, is much more confined geographically, all outbreaks having occurred within a 640 km range [27]. Genetic diversity between the different SUDV strains is very low [27]. In 2011, 7 years after its last appearance, there was a fatal case of SUDV infection in Uganda; the full-length genome sequence of the isolate showed 99.3% identity to the one that caused the Gulu outbreak in 2000 [34].

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