(C) The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013″
“Background/Aims: Low heart rate selleck chemical variability (HRV) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population. We aimed to determine the factors associated with HRV and evaluate the association between low HRV and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A 10-second electrocardiogram was obtained at baseline in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. HRV was measured by the standard deviation of all R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive differences between R-R intervals
(RMSSD). Results: In 3,245 CRIC participants with available baseline SDNN and RMSSD, lower HRV was associated with older age, lack
of exercise, heart failure, elevated phosphorus and hemoglobin A1c, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate. After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, in fully adjusted models, lower HRV was not associated with renal [SDNN: hazard rate, HR = 0.96 (95% confidence interval, Cl 0.88-1.05); RMSSD: HR = 0.97 (95% Cl 0.88-1.07)] or cardiovascular outcomes [SDNN: HR = 1.02 (95% Cl 0.92-1.13); RMSSD: HR = 1.00 (95% Cl 0.90-1.10)]. There was a nonlinear relationship between RMSSD and all-cause mortality with increased risk with both low and high RMSSD (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In a large cohort of patients with CKD, multiple risk factors for renal and cardiovascular diseases were YM155 associated with lower HRV. Lower HRV was not associated with increased risk for renal or cardiovascular outcomes, but both low and high RMSSD were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality. In conclusion, HRV measured Selleck C59 wnt by RMSSD may be a novel and independent
risk factor for mortality in CKD patients. (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Aims: We showed that chronic cholestatic liver injury induced the expression of c-Myc but suppressed that of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, composed of catalytic and modifier subunits GCLC and GCLM, respectively). This was associated with reduced nuclear antioxidant response element (ARE) binding by nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Here, we examined whether c-Myc is involved in this process. Results: Similar to bile duct ligation (BDL), lithocholic acid (LCA) treatment in vivo induced c-Myc but suppressed GCL subunits expression at day 14. Nrf2 expression and Nrf2 ARE binding fell markedly. However, Nrf2 heterodimerization with MafG was enhanced by LCA, which prompted us to examine whether LCA treatment in vivo altered proteins that bind to ARE using biotinylated ARE in pull-down assay followed by proteomics. LCA treatment enhanced c-Myc but lowered prohibitin 1 (PHB1) binding to ARE. This was a result of c-Myc-mediated induction of microRNA 27a/b (miR27a/b), which target both PHB1 and Nrf2 to reduce their expression.