(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Despite the im

(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Despite the importance of the adaptive process for discriminating the broad range of sound intensity, there have been few systemic investigations targeting the auditory mechanisms. In this study, the adaptation effect of sound intensity on the change in glucose metabolism in rat brains was examined using a PET technique. In the first experiment, broadband white noise sound (40, 60, 80, or 100 dB sound pressure level) was given for 30 min after an 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose

injection in an awake condition. In the second experiment, sound stimuli with an intensity modulation of 0, 0.5, and 5.0 Hz in frequency and at three intensity levels were used for examining the metabolism change according to the short time scale variation of the sound intensity. As a AG-120 result, the metabolic activities in the bilateral cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complexes, and

inferior colliculus were proportional to the sound intensity level, whereas the bilateral auditory cortical areas unexpectedly decreased as the sound intensity level increased in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex was higher at 0.5 and 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than the 0.0 Hz modulation frequency, while retaining SC75741 mouse an inverse relationship with the sound intensity. The metabolism in inferior colliculus was higher at 5.0 Hz modulation frequency than 0.0 and 0.5 Hz modulation frequencies. Taken together, the auditory cortex metabolism seemed to be actively adapted to the Molecular motor average sound intensity, which indicates that it plays an important role in processing the broad range to sound intensity more than the other nucleus of the auditory pathway. Especially, this study demonstrated that the sound intensity-dependent glucose metabolism can be seen in a small rodent’s brain stem level using 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET functional neuroimaging. NeuroReport

23:228-233 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“The deliberate dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores via the US mail system in 2001 confirmed their potential use as a biological weapon for mass human casualties. This dramatically highlighted the need for specific medical countermeasures to enable the authorities to protect individuals from a future bioterrorism attack. Although vaccination appears to be the most effective and economical form of mass protection, current vaccines have significant drawbacks that justify the immense research effort to develop improved treatment modalities. After eight years and an expenditure of more than $50 billion, only marginal progress has been made in developing effective therapeutics.

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