Between 2009-2010 a total of 46 clinical isolates: Enterobacteria

Between 2009-2010 a total of 46 clinical isolates: Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella spp.; including 2 K. oxytoca, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella spp.), Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis and E. faecium), and Staphylococcus aureus Screening Library manufacturer were collected from the A Coruña Hospital, NW Spain, and were included in the study (Table 1). Isolates were identified by API 20NE, API 20E, API 20STREP, and API STAPH (bioMérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France) when appropriated. With A.

baumannii, the identification was confirmed by molecular methods. Only one strain per patient was selected and in all cases bacterial isolates were associated with infection. All strains were isolated from urine samples (urinary tract infection), except those 7 from A. baumannii, 3 isolated from blood, 3 from respiratory samples, and 1 from wound

infection. The microorganisms assayed, antibiotics employed and the CLSI breakpoint concentrations of susceptibility-resistance are STA-9090 chemical structure presented in Table 1. Bacteria were grown for 24 h in Mueller-Hinton agar dishes. After dilution to an OD600 of 0.1, the bacteria were incubated with the CLSI breakpoint doses of susceptibility and resistance in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37°C, for 60 min and processed to determine cell wall integrity. Cell growth in Mueller-Hinton broth was evaluated by monitoring HDAC inhibitor turbidity at OD600 using a spectrophotometer (Unicam 8625, Cambridge, UK). The MIC was determined by automated microdilution (MicroScan

Walkaway, Dade) or using the E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) according Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase to manufacturer’s instructions. Viability was determined by colony counting after sequential dilutions and plating. Determination of cell wall integrity The Micromax® kit (Halotech DNA SL, Madrid, Spain) had been designed to evaluate the integrity of the nucleoid from bacteria. Two new variants of the Micromax® kit were used, one developed to assess the cell wall from gram-negative bacteria (Micromax® WG-) and another one for gram-positive bacteria (Micromax® WG+). An aliquot of each sample was diluted to a concentration of 5-10 million microorganisms/ml in Mueller-Hinton broth. The kit includes 0.5 ml snap cap microfuge tubes containing gelled aliquots of low-melting point agarose. The tube was placed in a water bath at 90-100°C for about 5 min to melt the agarose completely and then placed in a water bath at 37°C. Twenty-five microlitres of the diluted sample were added to the tube and mixed with the melted agarose.

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