At any rate, if colour development is affected by environmental c

At any rate, if colour development is affected by environmental conditions, the ability to occupy and defend territories with high thermal quality can also be viewed as an aspect of individual quality, hence the environmental effect further supports our view that the studied colour signals transfer relevant information about their holder. Taken together, we found that the nuptial throat patch colour of male European green lizard is a complex,

multiple signal. All colour components varied between years, suggesting an environmental factor in colour development. Both UV chroma and total brightness can be honest signals advertising different qualities of the owner, as previously demonstrated not only in lizards, but in birds as well (Doucet & Montgomerie, 2003; Lopez, Figuerola & Soriguer,

2008). With respect to possible information gathered from males’ nuptial coloration, it selleck inhibitor is reasonable to assume that the same trait can be used in intersexual (female choice) and in intrasexual (male–male competition) selection CDK inhibitor (Stapley & Keogh, 2006; Fitze et al., 2008). However, it is also possible that different components are relevant in each process, and different characteristics are assessed by males and females (Lebas & Marshall, 2001; Lopez et al., 2002). Rigorous assessment of the separate and/or common roles of UV chroma and total brightness of male European green lizards’ nuptial throat colour warrants further study. We thank Gergely Hegyi and Miklos Laczi for their statistical advice and help in the evaluation

of spectral data. We also thank Johan Kotze for correcting the English. The study was supported by OTKA (Hungarian Scientific Research Fund, ref. no.: F68403). Experiments were performed according to the guidelines of the Hungarian Act of Animal Care and Experimentation (1998, XXVIII, section 243/ 1998), which conforms to the regulation of animal experiments by the European Union. We thank Middle – Danube – Valley Environmental, Nature and Water Inspectorate for permission to conduct this study (Project no.: 21765/2007, 15954-2/2008 and 31870-3/2009 in the 3 years, respectively). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. “
“Although it is generally thought that dental learn more design reflects mechanical adaptations to particular diets, concrete concepts of such adaptations beyond the evolution of hypsodonty are largely missing. We investigated the alignment of enamel ridges in the occlusal molar surface of 37 ruminant species and tested for correlations with the percentage of grass in the natural diet. Independent of phylogenetic lineage, species that were either larger and/or included more grass in their natural diet showed a higher proportion of enamel ridges aligned at low angles to the direction of the chewing stroke.

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