ananatis isolates based on their hosts or HR reaction The detect

ananatis isolates based on their hosts or HR reaction. The detection, characterization and diversity of P. ananatis from maize, sorghum and crabgrass in our study can be applied in understanding epidemiology and designing control strategies for maize white spot disease in Brazil. “
“This study aimed to elucidate the infection process of Botrytis cinerea on eucalypt leaves. Tests were conducted to evaluate the

influence of leaf side (adaxial or abaxial), leaf age and luminosity on conidial germination, appressorium formation and grey mould (GM) severity. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of detached eucalypt leaves were inoculated with a conidial suspension of B. cinerea and kept under constant light or dark. Subsequently, the adaxial surface

of young and old leaves was inoculated and kept in the INK 128 price dark. To evaluate the percentage of conidia germination and appressorium HM781-36B formation, leaf samples were collected 6 hours after inoculation (hai), clarified (alcohol and chloral hydrate) and evaluated under a light microscope. The severity of GM was assessed 10 days after inoculation. For scanning electron microscopy analysis, samples were collected from 2 to 168 hai. A higher percentage of conidia germination (92%) and GM severity (21%) occurred on the adaxial surfaces of leaves kept in the dark. There was no statistical difference between the surfaces of young and old leaves for conidia germination. No appressorium was formed by B. cinerea. The GM severity on young leaves (17.3%) was 34 times higher than on old leaves (0.5%). The micrographs showed germinating conidia emitting 1–4 germ tubes in samples at 4 hai. The fungus check details penetration occurred through intact leaf surfaces, and both extra- and intracellular colonization of the mesophyll cells by the hyphae of the pathogen were observed at 120

hai. Sporulation occurred on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces (macronematous conidiophores) and below the epidermis (micronematous conidiophores). “
“The aim of this research was to examine the effect of UV-C on resistance of lettuce to Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia minor. Analysis of the lesion surfaces showed that plants exposed to UV-C were less susceptible to the two pathogens, especially on the fourth day after inoculation. Chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide were assayed after 1 day and 4 days. Lettuces treated with UV-C and inoculated showed an increase in chlorophyll and carotenoid content, especially 24 h after inoculation, and low values of the two indicators of oxidative stress as compared with lettuces which were inoculated but did not receive UV-C treatment. “
“Two hundred and thirty cultures of Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus were obtained from ascospores created in apothecia on the previous years’ ash leaf rachises in the stand floor.

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