American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), food and clinical isolates, of
Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mirabilis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus), the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis and the fungus Aspergillus niger were used. Pistachio extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria with a bactericidal effect observed against L. monocytogenes (ATCC strains and food isolates), S. aureus and MRSA clinical LDK378 nmr isolates. Extracts from raw shelled pistachios were more active than those from roasted salted pistachios. The bactericidal activity of pistachio extracts could be used to help control the growth of some microorganisms in foods to improve safety and may find application as a topical treatment for S. aureus. “
“Infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are constant and are a non-negligible Tamoxifen threat to the human population. In the last two decades, salmonellosis outbreaks have increasingly been associated with infected fruits and vegetables. For a long time,
Salmonellae were assumed to survive on plants after a more or less accidental infection. However, this notion has recently been challenged. Studies on the infection mechanism in vegetal hosts, as well as on plant immune systems, revealed an active infection process Bay 11-7085 resembling in certain features the infection in animals. On one hand, Salmonella requires the type III secretion systems to effectively infect
plants and to suppress their resistance mechanisms. On the other hand, plants recognize these bacteria and react to the infection with an induced defense mechanism similar to the reaction to other plant pathogens. In this review, we present the newest reports on the interaction between Salmonellae and plants. We discuss the possible ways used by these bacteria to infect plants as well as the plant responses to the infection. The recent findings indicate that plants play a central role in the dissemination of Salmonella within the ecosystem. “
“Although DNA is the ultimate repository of biological information, deployment of its instructions is constrained by the metabolic and physiological status of the cell. To this end, bacteria have evolved intricate devices that connect exogenous signals (e.g. nutrients, physicochemical conditions) with endogenous conditions (metabolic fluxes, biochemical networks) that coordinately influence expression or performance of a large number of cellular functions. The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a bacterial multi-protein phosphorylation chain which computes extracellular (e.g. sugars) and intracellular (e.g. phosphoenolpyruvate, nitrogen) signals and translates them into post-translational regulation of target activities through protein-protein interactions.