After the incubation, the cells were centrifuged at 10,000g for 3

After the incubation, the cells were centrifuged at 10,000g for 30 min at 4 °C, and the supernatant was collected and filtered through a 0.2 μm Millipore membrane. The absorbance was determined in a spectrophotometer DU-800 (Beckman Ion Channel Ligand Library ic50 Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA) by the difference in absorbance at wavelengths 414 and 600 nm. The results are expressed in nmol cytochrome c released/106 cells using a molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) of 100 mM−1 cm−1. The assessment of caspase 3 activity was performed using a Caspase 3 assay kit (Sigma–Aldrich). The hepatocytes

were collected and centrifuged at 600g for 5 min and suspended in 1 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Further centrifugation was performed, and the precipitate was incubated for 15 min at 4 °C

with 200 μL of lysis buffer for the release of caspase 3, and 300 μL of PBS was then INK1197 cell line added. The lysed cell suspension was centrifuged at 14,000g for 15 min at 4 °C, and the supernatant was collected. Aliquots of 50 μL of supernatant were used to assess the activity of caspase 3 according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Fluorescence was determined using the fluorescence spectrophotometer RF-5301 PC (Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan) at wavelengths of 360 and 460 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The results are expressed as pmol of AMC/min/mL. Samples of cells (200 μL) were collected and centrifuged at 50g for 5 min, and the precipitate was suspended in Krebs/Henseleit medium, pH 7.4, and incubated with Hoechst 33342 (8 μg/mL) and Propidium Iodide (5 μM) dyes for 15 min at room temperature in the dark. After incubation, the samples were

centrifuged Anacetrapib twice at 50g for 5 min to remove excess dye. After the washes, the hepatocytes were suspended in 50 μL of Krebs/Henseleit medium, pH 7.4. The cells were analyzed with a fluorescence microscope (DM 2500 type, Leica, Rueil-Malmaison, France), and the percentage of necrotic cells was quantitated using the Qwin 3.0 software. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (S.E.M.). The statistical significance of the differences between control and the experimental groups was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test, and differences between the experimental groups at the same time points was evaluated using unpaired t test with Welch´s correction. Values of P < 0.05 were considered to be significant. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software, version 4.0 for Windows (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). Fig. 1 shows the inhibitory effect of ABA on the glutamate-plus-malate-supported and succinate-supported state 3 (ADP-stimulated) respiration of mitochondria in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes.

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