(ABL; Kensington, MD), and maintained according to institutional

(ABL; Kensington, MD), and maintained according to institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines, and the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. All animals were negative for SIV, simian T-cell leukaemia virus-type 1 and simian type D retrovirus except for the 13 subsequently infected with SIV. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture of anaesthetized animals into EDTA-treated collection tubes. The PBMCs were obtained

by centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque PLUS gradients (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden). Cells were washed thoroughly and resuspended at 1 × 106 cells/ml in R-10 medium (RPMI-1640 containing 10% https://www.selleckchem.com/products/DMXAA(ASA404).html fetal calf serum, 2 mm l-glutamine and penicillin/streptomycin [Gibco, Carlsbad, CA]). Serum samples obtained from previously immunized and SIVmac251-challenged macaques36 had been stored at −70° and were able to mediate potent ADCC activity, shown previously to correlate with reduction of post-challenge acute viraemia.18 Serum samples obtained before immunization were used as negative controls. All fluorochrome-conjugated mAbs used in the present study were anti-human mAbs known

to cross-react with rhesus macaque antigens. The following mAbs were purchased from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA): FITC-conjugated anti-CD69 (FN50), anti-CD3 (SP34), and anti-CD20 (2H7); phycoerythrin (PE) -conjugated anti-CD8β (2ST8.5H7), and anti-CD20 (2H7); PE-Cy7-conjugated anti-CD56 (B159); allophycocyanin (APC) -conjugated anti-IFN-γ (B27), anti-TNF-α PD98059 clinical trial (MAb11) and anti-HLA-DR (TU36); Alexa Fluor 700-conjugated anti-CD3 (SP34-2); and APC-Cy7-conjugated

anti-CD16 (3G8). The following reagents were purchased from eBiosciences (San Diego, CA): PE-conjugated anti-Perforin (deltaG9); peridinin chlorophyll protein-Cy5.5-conjugated anti-CD161/NKR-P1A (HP-3G10); and eFluor650NC-conjugated anti-CD20 (2H7). The following mAbs were purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA): PE-TexasRed-conjugated anti-granzyme B (GB11); QDot605-conjugated anti-CD14 (TuK4); and Pacific Lck Blue-conjugated anti-CD8 (3B5). Pacific Blue-conjugated anti-CD8 (RPA-T8) was purchased from BioLegend (San Diego, CA); APC-conjugated anti-CD159a/NKG2A (Z199) and PE-conjugated anti-CD335/NKp46 (BAB281) were purchased from Beckman Coulter (Miami, FL); PE-conjugated anti-CD337/NKp30 (AF29-4D12), APC-conjugated anti-CD314/NKG2D (BAT221), and anti-KIR2D (NKVFS1) were purchased from Miltenyi Biotec (Auburn, CA); and fluorescein-conjugated anti-CD11c (3.9) was purchased from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). For multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis, approximately 1·5 × 106 PBMCs were stained for specific surface molecules, fixed and permeabilized with a Cytofix/Cytoperm Kit (BD Biosciences), and then stained for specific intracellular molecules. The yellow LIVE/DEAD viability dye (Invitrogen) was used to gate-out the presence of dead cells. At least 300 000 singlet events were acquired on an LSR II (BD Biosciences) and analysed using FlowJo Software (TreeStar Inc., Ashland, OR).

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