A second result was obtained

A second result was obtained Cabozantinib nmr by using SR95531 at concentrations sufficiently high to rapidly block the tonic current above the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl). Surprisingly, below ECl, SR95531 (10–40 μm) activated a sustained inward current, associated with a conductance increase, and resistant to bicuculline or PTX (100 μm). Similarly, after blockade of the bicuculline-sensitive current, SR95531 activated an

outward current above ECl. The bicuculline-resistant anionic current activated by SR95531 could be blocked by a GABAC receptor antagonist. Thus, two types of inhibitory GABA receptors, belonging to the GABAA and GABAC families, are able to show a sustained activity in HMs and provide promising targets for neuroprotection

under overexcitatory situations known to easily damage these particularly fragile neurons. “
“Food restriction has been reported to have positive effects on cognition. This study examines how another environmental selleck inhibitor factor, daylength, can alter the impact of food restriction on the brain and behavior. Female California mice (Peromyscus californicus), housed on either long days (16 h of light and 8 h of darkness) or short days (8 h of light and 16 h of darkness), were restricted to 80% of their normal baseline food intake or provided with food ad libitum. Testing in a Barnes maze revealed that the effects of food restriction depended on photoperiod, and that these effects differed for acquisition vs. reversal learning. During acquisition testing, food restriction increased latency to finding the target hole in short-day mice but not in long-day mice. In reversal

testing, food restriction decreased latency to finding the target hole in long-day Casein kinase 1 mice but not in short-day mice. Latency to finding the hole was positively and independently correlated with both errors and time spent freezing, suggesting that changes in both spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior contributed to performance. Short days increased hippocampal expression of the synaptic protein, synapsin I, which was reversed by food restriction. Short days also reduced plasma corticosterone levels, but diet had no effect. There was no effect of diet or photoperiod on hippocampal expression of the glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. The present findings suggest that, in female California mice, the differential effects of food restriction on acquisition and reversal learning are photoperiod-dependent. These results justify further testing of the relationship between food restriction and hippocampal synapsin I in the context of spatial learning. “
“The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic region with a crucial role in the regulation of midbrain monoaminergic systems. Over the past few years a renewed interest in the LHb has emerged due to studies highlighting its central role in encoding rewarding and aversive aspects of stimuli.

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