[8] where the races took place over several days If we also cons

[8] where the races took place over several days. If we also consider the studies from Dancaster et al.[50], Irving et al.[51] and Knechtle et al.[6] showing that a longer eccentric load of running leads to an increased skeletal muscle damage due to rhabdomyolysis, which therefore impairs the renal function and thus leads to a higher water retention [6], the eccentric stress situation in the present Ironman triathletes was comparably low. In addition, the extent of renal impairment in the present Ironman triathletes was minimal which would not have led to peripheral oedemata. Skenderi et al.[19] also demonstrated rhabdomyolysis during a 246-km continuous running race and

postulated an association between muscle damage and impaired buy ABT-888 renal function. It has furthermore been described by Uberoi et al.[12] that the pathophysiology of acute renal failure is multifactorial and is the combined effect of rhabdomyolysis, dehydration, hypotension, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hyperuricemia. Concluding that a longer race time leads to a larger decrease of the renal function due to an increased rhabdomyolysis, we have to assume that the race time of the Ironman triathlon was probably

too short to measure a significant disturbance in body learn more fluid homeostasis. Venous and lymphatic reasons for post-race oedemata? The type of oedemata that develops following an Ironman triathlon is not necessarily the result of frank rhabdomyolysis. Leg swelling is often of oedematous nature [55] where bilateral leg swelling is usually the manifestation of a HDAC inhibitor Systemic disorder, the most common of which is chronic venous insufficiency [56]. Systemic causes of leg oedema may also include idiopathic cyclic oedema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and other hypoproteinemic states [57]. The legs are preferentially affected

by systemic oedematous states. Pathogenetic factors are: increased hydrostatic pressure, increased capillary permeability (leak), reduced colloid-oncotic pressure, reduced lymph drainage and miscellaneous rare conditions [58]. The post-race oedemata in these athletes can easily be understood as an interstitial oedema, partly explained by increased capillary permeability, allowing leakage of osmotic material. Peripheral oedemata develop as 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl a consequence of imbalance in the processes of filtration, resorption and lymphatic transport in the capillary bed [59]. Water follows into the interstitium to restore/maintain the osmotic equilibrium. This swelling is cleared by the slow acting lymphatic circulation. The kidneys see this fluid only once the lymphatic circulation returns it to blood vessels. The post-race oedemata of the lower legs in these Ironman triathletes might also be due to these reasons. It should also be noted that this kind of oedema cannot be said to be due to aggressive overdrinking completely unrelated to thirst.

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