The microorganisms more commonly isolated from mixed microbial infections are pathogenic bacteria and fungi. A recent retrospective study of the respiratory tract microbiology of cystic fibrosis patients revealed that their airways
were colonized by multiple microorganisms, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa (62% prevalence) in association with Aspergillus species . The epidemiology and clinical significance of Aspergillus infection in cystic fibrosis patients have been recently reviewed [25–27]. Among the numerous Aspergillus isolates recovered from the respiratory tracts of cystic fibrosis patients, A. fumigatus is the most predominant species with a prevalence ranging from 11% to 14% in the United States  Selleck Bafilomycin A1 and as high as 60% to 78% in Europe [29, 30], followed by A. terreus. Although invasive aspergillosis can occur in persons with cystic fibrosis, particularly after lung transplantation, the most common complication of Aspergillus infection is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis [31–34], a condition learn more that causes the deterioration of lung function associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, cough and chest pain. Given the high prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus colonization of the airways of cystic fibrosis
patients, mixed microbial infection involving these microorganisms commonly occurs in the lungs [30, 35, 36] producing monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilms. The biofilm-embedded cells are highly resistant to antimicrobial drug therapy [37–40], difficult to eradicate and
often develop chronic infection that acts as a reservoir causing serious life-threatening infection in individuals with debilitated immune function. Thymidylate synthase Several investigators have recently studied A. fumigatus monomicrobial biofilm using in vitro  and human bronchial epithelial cell culture  models. The aerial or surface biofilm is similar to the fungal ball often associated with aspergilloma in patients with lung cavitary lesions. The aerial biofilm made up of fungal mycelia bound together by an extracellular matrix composed of a variety of macromolecules, including galactomannan, α1,3-glucan, monosaccharides and polyols, melanin, proteins including major antigens and hydrophobin molecules . On the other hand, Loussert et al. have recently  studied the composition of the mycelial extracellular matrix in vivo and found to have less complex but similar composition. The monomicrobial biofilm of A. fumigatus developed in 96-well cell culture plates and in human bronchial epithelial cell culture were resistant to antimicrobial drugs [38, 40]. Gene expression and proteomic studies by Bruns et al.