A history of PHI among the patients further significantly affecte

A history of PHI among the patients further significantly affected the EBV-host relationship, which was not observed in non-vaccinated PHI patients [31]. Although we followed several of the vaccinated patients for 2–3 years, we cannot make any conclusion concerning the persistent effect of immunisation on EBV DNA load. All analysed patients were introduced on cART soon after ending the vaccine trials. The introduction Selleckchem INCB024360 of cART affects the EBV host balance via the restoration of the CD4+ positive

cells. This is most likely a strong confounding factor on the effect of immunisation on the EBV DNA load. The immune stimulation caused by rgp160/alum may affect EBV in two ways. It may be either through influence on EBV replication resulting in ON-01910 ic50 infection of more B cells, or EBV infected B lymphocytes may be

stimulated to proliferate through the activation of helper T-cells as a result of a Th2 enhancement by the vaccine. It has been shown that gp160 HIV-vaccination up-regulates immune activation T-cell markers, such as MHC class II and CD38 helper T-cells [32]. In an experimental prophylactic vaccination with gp120 in mice, the Th2-arm was activated [33]. The effects of therapeutic vaccination on T-cells might generate B-cell activation through non-specific immune stimulation in HIV infected individuals, as also shown for patients with autoimmune disease [15] and [32]. Our method detects B cell-associated EBV genome load. The method does not distinguish whether an expansion of EBV load in infected cells was caused by an increased copy-number or if it was caused by an increased number of infected cells. Using the same PCR method

in a study of blood from healthy donors, we have shown that the number of EBV genome copies vary between 1–5 copies per B cell in different B-cell subsets [34]. It is not known if this is also valid in HIV-1 infected patients. EBV-DNA PCR is a useful tool Rolziracetam for monitoring clinical course of lymphoproliferative disease and for identifying patients at risk for tumours [11] and [35]. Measurement of EBV genome levels is then usually performed in extra-cellular plasma as cell free virus DNA [35] and [36]. However, Stevens et al. [11] concluded that serum may not be an optimal clinical specimen for EBV DNA load-monitoring because it does not consider the presence of cell-associated virus, and uncontrolled cell lysis may give irreproducible results or overestimation of the DNA load. However, we could not detect any EBV-DNA in plasma from our patients, which might reflect their relatively intact immune status. EBV DNA is rarely if ever detected in plasma from healthy individuals [37]. Cell-free virus DNA is probably only detected when released from dying cells in EBV carrying tumours or when the EBV host balance is significantly disturbed. Free virus may also be derived due to the replication of virus in sites outside blood in hosts with relaxed control of EBV-latency.

Finally, the concentrations in the inner tube and outer vessel be

Finally, the concentrations in the inner tube and outer vessel become equal, resulting in ceasing of oscillations, i.e., equilibrium. The oscillations observed in the time domain were expanded for observing the inner details of each phase. On step-wise expansion, the individual signals were visible for citric acid (1.0 mol dm−3) (Fig. 5). The signals were similar to sine wave. The signals remained nearly same among various concentrations of citric acid, which are characteristic of citric acid. This pattern was confirmed with other sour taste stimulants, which indicated the uniformity of the signals (Fig. 5). DAPT in vivo Therefore, for the qualitative analysis,

the signals obtained from the up-flow would be ideal. Thus, the present study demonstrated the characteristic signals (qualitative analysis) of sour Selleck Alisertib taste category. Peak was obtained at 50 Hz, which may be characteristic of the sour category. This observation was closer to the earlier report of 60 Hz for sour taste category.9 The hydrodynamic oscillations were characterized and the phases were identified as down-flow and up-flow instrumentally, which were confirmed by visual observation. Further, the flow behavior of the oscillations was explained by electrical

double layer concept. The characteristic signals were the same for the four sour taste stimulants and each signal was found to occur for a few milliseconds (≈200 ms). This report gave qualitative identification of sour taste category. The characteristics frequency was found at 50 Hz. Such information enhances the scope of investigations Cediranib (AZD2171) of hydrodynamic oscillations in

general, and sour taste in particular. Such studies also pave way to the development of tools for taste analysis, on parallel lines of spectrophotometric analysis. All authors have none to declare. The authors dedicated this research article to Late Prof. R.C. Srivastava, for his deep interest in this area and helpful suggestions. Our thanks to Prof. M. Chakraborty, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, and Mr. Vineeth Chowdary, a student of B. Tech., for their support. “
“Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) commonly referred to as HIV & AIDS have emerged as being amongst the most serious and challenging public health problems in the world. There are two species of HIV, namely, HIV 1 and HIV 2 with their respective subspecies. HIV 1 is the global common infection whereas the latter is restricted to mainly West Africa. HIV infection in the human body results mainly from the integration of the viral genome into the host cell for the purpose of cell replication.1 The current clinical therapy, known as highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), is considered as one of the most significant advances in the field of HIV therapy.

The expiratory flow retardation created

The expiratory flow retardation created check details by the distal end produces positive back pressure on the airway. The expiratory pressure induced by resistance of the conical-PEP is flow dependent; the greater the expiratory flow the greater the back pressure (Mitchell 2007, Weng 1984). It produces a positive mouth pressure of 4.2–10.9 cmH2O at expiratory flows of 0.06− 0.41 L/s at rest and 4–20 cmH2O at flow rates of 0.09–0.51 L/s during exercise. This pressure range has been reported to be optimal for retarding airway collapse in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (O’Donnell et al 1988, Petrof

et al 1990, Plant et al 2000). Exercise was terminated when one of the following symptoms occurred: breathlessness ≥ 5/10 on the modified Borg scale, leg discomfort, or any other unpleasant symptoms such as dizziness. The control intervention was normal breathing during exercise. Lung function was measured as inspiratory capacity and slow vital capacity in litres according to ATS/ERS taskforce guidelines (Miller et al 2005) with a portable automated spirometera. The volume sensor was calibrated before each test. The duration

of exercise and the reasons for exercise termination were collected. Breathlessness was measured using the modified Borg scale (0 to 10) where 0 is no breathlessness and leg discomfort was measured using a 0–10 visual analogue scale see more where 0 is no discomfort. Cardiorespiratory function was also measured. SpO2 was measured by finger pulse oximeter and end tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) was measured in a side-stream of Phosphoprotein phosphatase expired air with a capnometerb. Electrocardiogram, expiratory mouth pressure and expiratory flow rate were continuously recorded on a PC with an A/D converterc. The flow and pressure sensors were calibrated before each data collection. Tidal volume, respiratory rate, inspiratory time, expiratory time and ratio (I:E ratio) were determined from the flow signal. Minute ventilation was calculated for the last minute of exercise. A pilot study

of two elderly participants without lung disease showed a between-intervention difference of 150 ml (SD 130) for inspiratory capacity. Therefore, we needed 11 participants to have a 90% power to detect between intervention difference of 150 mL at p = 0.05. Student’s paired t tests showed no evidence of either period effects or intervention-period interaction of the primary outcome and, therefore, the data for the two tests in each intervention were averaged to provide a single value for each participant. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05, therefore mean between-intervention differences (95% CI) are presented. Forty-three patients with moderate-severe stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were screened and 17 (40%) agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 4 (24%) withdrew prior to randomisation for reasons that were unrelated to the procedures of the study.

First, a vaccine would need to be rigorously shown to induce full

First, a vaccine would need to be rigorously shown to induce full protection, rather than inducing partial protection which could lead to unrecognized latent infection. Therefore, such a vaccine would

need to a) prevent chancre development associated with primary disease and the lesions associated with secondary disease to abolish transmission of T. pallidum and HIV and b) inhibit treponemal dissemination throughout the host to prevent corresponding disease progression and establishment of CS. Second, the vaccine candidate(s) would need to be effective in generating a Th1 response and opsonic antibodies due to the critical role that opsonophagocytosis plays in T. pallidum clearance during infection. And third, the vaccine candidate(s) must be selected to ensure the vaccine is broadly protective against many T. pallidum strains. These complex requirements are very unlikely to be met using a single treponemal protein, and thus it is probable Epigenetics Compound Library in vitro that an effective syphilis vaccine will constitute a multi-component formulation. After almost a century of research, significant insight has been provided

into the correlates of protection in the rabbit model. However, successful vaccine development will depend upon extending our understanding AT13387 mouse of the correlates of protection in humans by fostering exchange of information and samples between the basic research laboratories and the clinics. Development of appropriate and effective adjuvants is essential and is likely to require the participation

of industry. Within the realm of research there needs to be the application of large-scale “omics” experimental approaches and data analyses to enhance our understanding of factors such as differential gene and protein expression among T. pallidum subspecies and T. pallidum subspecies pallidum strains. And, most importantly, there needs to be an enhanced effort to conclusively determine the identity of surface-exposed antigens. This includes the OMPs, but also requires that the field pursue non-protein antigens including membrane lipids and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation or methylation found of exposed proteins. The field has been focussing on the “easier” protein antigens, perhaps at its peril. The accomplishment of these goals will require attracting a larger number of trained syphilis basic scientists to the field and a commitment of continual and enhanced training and research support that is commensurate with technical barriers and the high cost of performing T. pallidum research. The successful development of vaccines for a developing world market is challenging, as the average timeline for development of a new vaccine is 8-18.5 years at an estimated cost of $200–$900 million [97]. However, there is already a significant precedent for the support of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in the development of vaccines for diseases that disproportionately affect people in the developing world.

Later, another OMV vaccine

from strain NZ98/254 (B:4:P1 7

Later, another OMV vaccine

from strain NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7-2,4) [7] and [8], was shown to be effective in controlling the clonal outbreak in New Zealand [9]. Recently, the protein antigen content of such vaccines has been assessed by sensitive proteomic methods [10]. In particular, gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis has been used to characterize the protein content of OMV vaccines produced from the strains responsible for outbreaks of serogroup B disease in Cuba and New Zealand [11], [12] and [13]. In addition to confirming the presence of known key antigens, these studies revealed the presence of a number of minor BLU9931 nmr proteins that had not previously been detected using conventional methods. As well as offering sensitive methods for the identification of proteins, proteomic technology provides the means to evaluate the impact of changes in the manufacturing process on the protein content of OMV vaccines. One of the critical factors affecting the consistency of OMV preparations is the bacterial growth medium. The OMV vaccines used in the protection trials in Cuba [4] and Norway [6] were made from bacteria grown in Frantz’ medium (FM), a complex medium containing yeast extract and casamino acids. check details The OMV vaccine used later in New Zealand, was produced from bacteria grown in the synthetic modified Catlin-6 medium (MC.6M) [8] and [14]. The current study

compared the protein expression and the immunogenicity of batches of OMV vaccines produced from

the Norwegian vaccine strain 44/76 cultivated in each of these media. About 3% of the proteins were differentially expressed, the majority of which were significantly higher in OMVs produced in MC.6M. These OMVs also induced significantly higher bactericidal antibody titres in the serum of immunized mice. Unless otherwise specified, chemicals and solvents used for (a) digestion, liquid chromatography (LC) and MS; (b) lysis and electrophoresis were supplied by Sigma–Aldrich (Dorset, UK) and GE Healthcare (Chalfont St Giles, UK), respectively. All electrophoresis related apparatus PDK4 and software were purchased from GE Healthcare. ELGA purified water at 18.0 Ω was used throughout the study (High Wycombe, UK). A murine polyclonal serum to recombinant NspA was kindly provided by G. Guillén (Centre of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba), rabbit polyclonal sera to TdfH by Turner et al. [15], to LbpB by Martine Bos (Institute of Biomembranes, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands), to TbpA by A. Gorringe (Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, HPA, Salisbury, UK), and to DsbA1 by C. Tinsley (INSERM U5701, Necker Medical Faculty, Paris, France). Murine monoclonal antibody to FetA was provided by D. Ala’Aldeen (University of Nottingham, UK), to OpaB128 by B. Kuipers (Netherlands Vaccine Institute, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), to RmpM by C.T. Sacchi (Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil) and to P1.

8% for AT and accuracy of 92 9% and precision less than 5 4% for

8% for AT and accuracy of 92.9% and precision less than 5.4% for EZ. The stability of the two drugs under various conditions is shown in Table 4. Under all conditions tested, the two drugs proved to be stable. All results were within the acceptance criteria of ±15% deviation from the nominal concentration. The mean plasma level of AT and EZ in both products A and B are shown in Fig. 4a and b. Table 5 shows the parameters for the non-compartmental pharmacokinetic

analysis. According to ANOVA results there is no significant sequence effect for both cmax and AUC0–72 h indicating that the crossover design was properly performed. The parametric point estimates and the 90% confidence intervals for ln-transformed AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and cmax, ( Table 6) were within commonly accepted bioequivalence range of 80–125% range, thus the results reveal learn more Dolutegravir nmr that the bioequivalence between products A and B could be concluded. A rapid, sensitive,

and simple method for determining AT and EZ levels in human plasma was developed and validated. The UPLC–MS/MS method described herein reveals significant advantages over other techniques, including LC–MS/MS, due to the inherently increased column efficiency of UPLC, which resulted in complete analysis within 1.2 min with significantly lower limits of quantitation (0.1 ng mL−1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first UPLC–MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of AT and EZ in human plasma. This fully validated method was an ideal tool for high-throughput Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease analysis of plasma samples used in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of AT and EZ between two market products. All authors have none to declare. Special thanks to Prof. Dr. Meselhy Ragab Meselhy for allowing the performance of this research in the “Center of Applied Research and Advanced Studies” (CARAS), Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. “
“Treatment of tuberculosis is now very complex because of the emergence of multi drug resistant bacteria, which are resistant to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, pyrazinamide, isoniazid and rifampin.1 Pyrazinamide (Fig. 1) is used extensively

in the treatment of tuberculosis together with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol.2 The structure of pyrazinamide is given by Fig. 1 and the structure of metronidazole is given by Fig. 2. It has a plasma half-life of 3–4 h, and is quickly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak serum concentrations of 6–8 μg/ml occurring 1.5–2.0 h after administration.3 The determination of PZA levels in biological fluids was carried out earlier by spectroscopic methods,4, 5 and 6 colorimetric methods7 and gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric technique.8 A survey of literature revealed that HPLC technique has been used for the determination of pyrazinamide in pharmaceuticals.9 A HPLC technique reported earlier had a step of very tedious extraction.

Results: 400 participants completed the study; 219 potential part

Results: 400 participants completed the study; 219 potential participants were excluded because they were assessed as having a low risk from the biomechanical

plantar pressure assessment. After 7 weeks training, there were 21 injuries in the intervention (orthosis) group and 61 injuries in the control group resulting in an absolute risk reduction of 0.20 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.28) and a number needed to treat of 5 (95% CI 4 to 8). A similar number of minor adverse events of foot blisters were reported by both groups (intervention n = 12, control n = 16) Conclusion: The use of customised foot orthoses during military training for those assessed as being at-risk resulted HIF-1 activation in a 20% reduction in lower limb overuse injury rate. [Absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat and 95% CIs re-calculated by the CAP Co-ordinator.] A recent Cochrane systematic review found that foot orthoses are effective for the treatment of foot pain ( Hawke et al 2008). The question of whether orthoses are effective for the prevention of injuries has also received investigation, including two systematic reviews

Vemurafenib mw ( Collins et al 2007, Landorf & Keenan 2007). Both reviews found that orthoses prevent injuries in certain populations (mainly military recruits). Whether the orthoses used are prefabricated or customised does not appear to matter ( Collins et al 2007, Landorf & Keenan 2007). What does matter is that they PD184352 (CI-1040) are appropriately contoured to the foot and they are not just shock-absorbing insoles, which do not prevent injury ( Landorf & Keenan 2007). Although this is not the first randomised trial to identify a positive preventive role of orthoses – as Franklyn-Miller

and colleagues claim – it adds to the evidence base that appropriately contoured foot orthoses are beneficial for preventing injuries. It is generally well conducted; however it does have some limitations, some of which were acknowledged by the authors. This trial would have been strengthened with a control group that received some form of sham treatment. It also appears that the authors may have overestimated the treatment effect with their calculation of the absolute risk reduction, although the re-calculated absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat presented in the synopsis still suggests that the intervention was very beneficial. A final issue, and one that is arguably more important, is whether a cheaper prefabricated orthosis could provide similar benefit compared to the semi-customised orthosis used in this trial. The prescription technique, while novel, is not commonly used in clinical practice, raising an issue about generalisability of the findings and whether more mass-produced and, as a consequence, cheaper orthoses may be as effective or better. A similar trial found a simpler orthosis to be effective for preventing shin splints (Larsen and Keenan 2002).

The seasonal influence that has been shown for immune-mediated di

The seasonal influence that has been shown for immune-mediated diseases could potentially translate into an effect of month of birth on rates of AEFI during the first year of life. In this study, we addressed this question by assessing the association between month of birth and the relative incidence (RI) of AEFI, defined as hospital admissions or ER visits, following vaccination. Children born in Ontario between April 1st 2002 and March 31st 2010 who were enrolled in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) were eligible for inclusion in the study cohort. OHIP is Ontario’s universal health insurance plan

which covers nearly all Ontario residents. We excluded multiple births, infants born prematurely (<37 weeks Integrase inhibitor gestation) and infants in the bottom decile of birth weight for their gestational age. After these exclusions, infants who were vaccinated at 2 and/or 12 months of age were included in the study cohort. Bosutinib research buy We excluded children who died, or whose follow-up was otherwise terminated before the end of the required observation period (Supplementary Fig. 1). As part of the publicly funded immunization schedule in Ontario, Canada, vaccinations given at 2, 4 and 6 months of age included those against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus and polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (cPDT Polio + Hib until January 2005; DTaP-IPV-Hib thereafter). As of

January 2005, a pneumococcal vaccine was also administered at 2, 4, and 6 months of age (Pneu-C-7 until October 2009; Pneu-C-10 thereafter). The first dose of the measles,

mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR) was given at 12 months of age throughout the entire study period, and as of September 2004, a vaccine against meningococcal disease (type C) was added to the schedule [14]. All study data were linked using unique, encoded identifiers and analyzed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES). We identified vaccinations from Olopatadine the OHIP database using general vaccination billing codes and methods described previously [1] and [2]. To identify the 2-month vaccinations, we selected those occurring on the exact recommended date (60 days) and up to two weeks before or up to one month after. For the 12-month vaccination, we selected those occurring at 365 days of age, as well as up to 60 days past that date. We ascertained hospital admissions using the Canadian Institute for Health Information’s (CIHI’s) Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), and ER visits using CIHI’s National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). The Registered Persons Database was used to ascertain eligibility for OHIP coverage and deaths. We defined our composite primary outcome as all-cause ER visits and admissions, with the a priori exclusion of events having diagnoses that could not reasonably be causally associated with vaccination (Supplementary Table 1).

The n value was found to be less than 0 45 and suggested that dru

The n value was found to be less than 0.45 and suggested that drug release from nanoparticles GSK-3 activity followed Fickian diffusion controlled mechanism. The results of stability studies are shown in Table 4. The physical as well as chemical characteristics

of the formulation were not affected at both temperature 3–5 °C and 15–25 °C during 3 months storage. There were no significant changes in drug content and FTIR spectra. From the above results the developed nanoparticles are stable at various temperatures. From this study, concentration of didanosine (ng/ml) from polysorbate 80 coated, uncoated formulation was measured in various organs of Wistar rats and compared with free drug of didanosine in solution. Fig. 5 shows that the mean concentration (ng/ml) of ddi in blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes and brain from polysorbate

80 coated, uncoated and free drug solution after 1 h of i.v administration. In almost, higher concentration of ddi reached in macrophage rich organs from group which has received polysorbate 80 coated nanoparticles than group 2 (uncoated nanoparticles), group 1 (the free drug solution). The concentration of ddi in brain, spleen and lymph nodes from polysorbate PS341 80 coated nanoparticles was found in 12.38, 8.15, 9.51 fold in comparison with the free ddi solution after 1 h of intravenous injection due to opsonization of albumin nanoparticles. In this study BSA nanoparticles were used as a carrier for antiretroviral and can be concluded that it is possible to prepare by desolvation technique. In vitro studies were evaluated to confirm the Fickian diffusion controlled drug Org 27569 release mechanism. Based on biodistribution studies polysorbate 80 coated nanocarriers play a specific role to extend the half-life of therapeutically active drugs with reduced

dose related adverse effects and also able to deliver higher drug levels in HIV reservoir sites which can provide better viral suppression by terminating HIV reverse transcriptase. From the results, human serum albumin can be substituted by bovine serum albumin to prepare nanoparticles containing antiretroviral drugs in further experiments. All authors have none to declare. “
“Donepezil (Fig. 1) is a piperidine-based, reversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Donepezil is indicated for symptomatic treatment of patients with mild, moderate and severe dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory followed by complete dementia. It accounts for 50% of dementia cases.1 A consistent pathological change in Alzheimer’s disease is the degeneration of cholinergic neuronal pathways that project from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The resulting hypofunction of the cholinergic systems is thought to account for some of the clinical manifestations of dementia.

Most candidate vaccines represent “minimalist” compositions [3],

Most candidate vaccines represent “minimalist” compositions [3], which typically exhibit lower immunogenicity. Adjuvants and novel delivery systems that boost immunogenicity www.selleckchem.com/products/Pazopanib-Hydrochloride.html are increasingly needed as we move toward the era of modern vaccines. Nanotechnology offers the opportunity to design nanoparticles varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties, for application in the field of medicine [4] and [5]. Nanoparticles, because

of their size similarity to cellular components, can enter living cells using the cellular endocytosis mechanism, in particular pinocytosis [6]. These cutting-edge innovations underpinned a market worth US $6.8 billion in 2006 [7] and predicted to reach US $160 billion by 2015 [8]. Indeed, nanoparticles

are revolutionizing the diagnosis of diseases as well as the delivery of biologically-active compounds for disease prevention and treatment. The emergence of virus-like particles (VLPs) and the resurgence of nanoparticles, such as quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles, marks a convergence of protein biotechnology with inorganic nanotechnology that promises an era of significant progress for nanomedicine [9] and [10]. A number of approved nano-sized vaccine buy PD98059 and drug delivery systems highlight the revolution in disease prevention and treatment that is occurring [4], [11], [12] and [13]. The use of nanotechnology in vaccinology, in particular, has been increasing exponentially in the past decade (Fig. 1), leading to the birth of “nanovaccinology” [3]. In both prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, nanoparticles are used as either a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and/or as an immunostimulant adjuvant to activate or enhance immunity. Therapeutic nanovaccinology is mostly applied for cancer treatment

[14], [15] and [16], and is increasingly explored to treat other diseases or conditions, such as Alzheimer’s [17], hypertension [9], and nicotine addiction [11]. Prophylactic nanovaccinology, on the other hand, has been applied for the prevention of different diseases. A number of prophylactic nanovaccines have been approved for human use and more are in clinical or pre-clinical others trials [13], [18], [19] and [20]. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the broad area of nanovaccinology, but limit our review only to prophylactic vaccines. We first survey advances in the types of nanoparticles, which are defined as any particulate material with size 1–1000 nm [21], used for prophylactic vaccine design (Fig. 2). We then discuss the interaction of nanoparticles with the antigen of interest, differentiating the role of the nanoparticle as either delivery system and/or immunostimulant adjuvant. The interaction of nanoparticles with immune cells and the biosystem are also discussed to provide understanding of antigen and nanoparticle processing in vivo, as well as clearance.