, 2006) Similarly, a primate study showed that fluoxetine treatm

, 2006). Similarly, a primate study showed that fluoxetine treatment prevented the onset of depression-like this website behaviours and increased the number of newly-born neurons that were at the threshold of maturation within a specific region of the dentate gyrus (anterior region), thus leading to the suggestion that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the recovery promoted by

fluoxetine (Perera et al., 2011). On the other hand the antidepressant-like effects of non-monoaminergic based antidepressant-like drugs, such as CRH1 or V1b antagonists, are not affected by inhibition of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (Surget et al., 2011 and Bessa et al., 2009) which is in contrast to many findings with antidepressants that target the monoaminergic system such as fluoxetine and imipramine (Surget et al., 2011, Perera et al., 2011 and Santarelli et al., 2003). Thus, it has been suggested that antidepressant drugs increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis,

independently of their behavioural effects and that antidepressant-induced increases in adult hippocampal neurogenesis might not be the final process in the recovery from stress-induced depressive-like behaviour BMS-354825 purchase (Bessa et al., 2009). The hippocampus can be divided along its septotemporal axis into dorsal and ventral regions in rodents and into anterior and posterior regions in primates, based on their distinct afferent and efferent connections (Fanselow and Dong, 2010). Lesion, optogenetic and electrophysiological studies in rodents suggest that this anatomical segregation results in a dichotomy in the Adenylyl cyclase function of the dorsal hippocampus (dHi) and the ventral hippocampus (vHi) (Fanselow and Dong, 2010 and Bannerman et al., 2004). While the dHi (analogous to the posterior hippocampus in primates) seems to play a preferential role in spatial learning and memory processes, the vHi (analogous to the anterior hippocampus in primates) preferentially regulates anxiety and the response to stress (Fanselow and Dong, 2010, Bannerman et al., 2004 and Moser and Moser, 1998). Since adult hippocampal

neurogenesis has been implicated in processes preferentially regulated by the dHi (spatial learning and memory) and the vHi (stress response), it is possible that adult neurogenesis might be regulated preferentially in the dHi or the vHi, depending upon the stimulus (Tanti and Belzung, 2013 and O’Leary and Cryan, 2014). Indeed, several studies have reported that stress affects several stages of adult neurogenesis, preferentially in the vHi rather than the dHi (Tanti and Belzung, 2013 and O’Leary and Cryan, 2014). Some (but not all) studies also report that antidepressant-induced increases in cytogenesis and neurogenesis occur preferentially in the vHi but not dHi (Tanti et al., 2012, Jayatissa et al., 2006, O’Leary et al., 2012, O’Leary and Cryan, 2014 and Banasr et al., 2006).

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