, 2001, Martinez et al , 2011 and Motta

et al , 2009) It

, 2001, Martinez et al., 2011 and Motta

et al., 2009). It is interesting to note that the lateral nucleus and its major intraamygdaloid target, the posterior basomedial Selleckchem HSP inhibitor amygdaloid nucleus, are reportedly involved in emotion-related learning and memory (LeDoux et al., 1990b and Petrovich et al., 1996), and lesions of these nuclei markedly impair conditioning responses to a predator-related context (Martinez et al., 2011). Given that the MeAV and MePV originate massive projections to the dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, are reciprocally connected and contain a large population of glutamatergic neurons (Poulin et al., 2008), they may exert a very powerful excitatory influence on the anti-predatory defense circuit. In addition, the present results indicate the amygdalostriatal transition area as a main output station of the MeAV. Although this transition area and the lateral amygdaloid nucleus share many input sources, they have distinct projections and are thought to be involved in different functional realms. Both of them receive auditory, visual and somatic information from posterior thalamic nuclei (Doron and LeDoux, 1999 and LeDoux et al., 1990a) and from the parietal insular and temporal cortices as well as higher order polimodal information from

the perirhinal cortex (McDonald, 1998). The amygdalostriatal transition area is also a major target of the lateral and posterior basomedial amygdaloid nuclei (Jolkkonen et al., 2001). Accordingly, unimodal and polimodal units responsive to auditory, visual and/or somatic stimuli have been recorded Alpelisib clinical trial in the lateral nucleus and amygdalostriatal transition area (Uwano et al., 1995). Projections

from the medial nucleus (MeAV and MeAD parts) to the lateral nucleus and amygdalostriatal transition area provide a route by which pheromonal signals from conspecifics and also potentially threatening Farnesyltransferase odors of a predator (Martinez et al., 2011, Meredith and Westberry, 2004 and Samuelsen and Meredith, 2009) may be conveyed to these telencephalic territories and associated with other sensory modalities. While the lateral amygdaloid nucleus has extensive intraamygdaloid projections being related to emotional learning and memory (LeDoux et al., 1990b and Pitkänen, 2000), the amygdalostriatal transition area, via its projections to the caudoventral part of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra, pars lateralis (Jolkkonen et al., 2001, LeDoux et al., 1990a, Shammah-Lagnado et al., 1996 and Shammah-Lagnado et al., 1999), may influence the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus and thereby be implicated in orienting responses to salient environmental stimuli (Doron and LeDoux, 1999, Jolkkonen et al., 2001 and Shammah-Lagnado et al., 1999).

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