1A) Both immunization protocols generated NP118-specific memory

1A). Both immunization protocols generated NP118-specific memory CD8+ T cells with similar frequency, phenotype (CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, CD27hi, CD43lo), and functionality (IFN-γ, TNF, and granzyme B expression; Fig. 1B–D). Mice from both vaccinated groups and nonimmunized controls were then challenged with LCMV-Arm. Consistent with our previous results [[16]], the NP118-specific CD8+ T cells in the att LM-NP118-vaccinated PKO mice underwent massive expansion, constituting ∼75% of all CD8+ T cells in the spleen (∼ 6–7×107 per spleen), at day 5 after LCMV challenge (Fig. 1C and D). One hundred percent

of these mice succumbed to the infection based https://www.selleckchem.com/products/hydroxychloroquine-sulfate.html on morbidity criteria by day 11 post-LCMV challenge (Fig. 1E). In sharp contrast, nonimmunized PKO mice exhibited relatively modest expansion of NP118-specific CD8+ T cells at day 5 post-LCMV infection and none of these mice succumbed (Fig. 1C–E). Interestingly, massive expansion of NP118-specific CD8+ T cells was also observed in DC-NP118-vaccinated mice and all of those mice succumbed to LCMV infection (Fig. 1C–E). Finally, the NP118-specific secondary effector CD8+

T cells at day 5 post-LCMV challenge exhibited similar phenotypes in the two vaccinated groups (Fig. 1F). These results suggest that mortality in vaccinated PKO mice following LCMV-Arm challenge is independent of immunization modalities. Immune system Current literature suggests that the magnitude of CD8+ T-cell expansion after primary infection is related to the number of precursors recruited into the response [[32, 33]]. However, Metabolism inhibitor it remains unclear whether the number of LCMV-specific memory CD8+ T cells at the time of LCMV infection determines the magnitude of secondary expansion and subsequent mortality in PKO mice. To address this question, we generated different levels of memory CD8+ T cells either by varying

the dose of att LM-NP118 used for immunization or by adoptive transfer of different numbers NP118-specific memory CD8+ T cells into naïve PKO mice. Naïve PKO mice were immunized with 5 × 106 CFU (high dose) or 5 × 102 CFU (low dose) of att LM-NP118. In order to control the extent of inflammation elicited by two different doses of infection used, mice that received a low dose of att LM-NP118 were coinfected with 5 × 106 CFU of the att LM strain that does not express the NP118 epitope (Fig. 2A). Approximately fourfold fewer NP118-specific memory CD8+ T cells (detected in PBL) were present in “low dose” compared with “high dose” immunized groups of mice (Fig. 2B). At day 70 post infection (p.i.) mice from both experimental groups and an additional control (nonimmunized) group were challenged with LCMV-Arm. Despite having fourfold difference in starting memory numbers (Fig.

Comments are closed.