05) Figure 3 Illustrates the interictal spike (IS) rate (number/

05). Figure 3 Illustrates the interictal spike (IS) rate (number/min) (mean ± SEM) over after the first seizure occurrence over 3 days. Note that the IS rate was lower in

the HFS group and it also decreased over injection days. The IS rate was defined as number … Significant day effects were also found for the latency (F(2,26) = 6.94, P < 0.01), duration of focal seizures (F(2,26) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical = 5.65, P < 0.01) and duration of generalized seizures (F(2,26) = 19.41, P < 0.01). Post-hoc t-test showed less duration of focal (t(14) = 2.27, P < 0.05) and generalized seizures (t(14) = 4.11, P < 0.01), and longer latency of focal seizures (t(14) = 2.95, P < 0.05) on Day 2 compared to Day 1. Similarly, the duration of focal seizures (t(14) = 2.91, P < 0.05) and generalized seizures (t(14) = 5.38, P < 0.01) were shorter, together with increased focal seizure latency (t(14) = 3.65, P Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical < 0.01) on Day 3 compared to Day 1. Discussion Acute responsive HFS was applied to the subiculum on KA induced seizures in rats. The major outcomes were that: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (1) Acute responsive HFS did not disrupt or shorten ongoing electrographic seizures. (2) The HFS group had less focal seizures and longer inter-seizure interval after the first seizure on Day 1. Lower IS rate was also found in the

HFS group. (3) Sensitivity to KA injections decreased over injection days for both groups. First of all, responsive HFS did not disrupt or shorten ongoing seizures in this KA induced seizure model. This result is in contrast with the effects of HFS on absence seizures. Two studies (Sarkisian et al. 1997; Vercueil et al. 1998) showed that bilateral HFS (130 Hz) of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the subthalamic nucleus interrupted ongoing absence seizures. The discrepancy in the effects of responsive HFS in these two types of seizures are not surprising considering that temporal lobe epilepsy and absence epilepsy involve various neuronal

networks, manifested with different etiologies, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clinical profiles, treatment strategies, and intensity—absences are characterized by mild seizures. On the other side, some in-vitro studies suggested that application of high frequency stimulation (100 Hz) or electric field (50 Hz sinusoid field) to the hippocampal slices could curtail the epileptiform activities such as selleck chemicals llc interictal-like activities (Bikson et al. 2001) or ictal activities induced by low calcium, picrotoxin or high potassium (Lian et al. 2003; Su et al. 2008). Thymidine kinase However, to the best of our knowledge, no in-vivo study has reported a complete abortion of seizure activities by acute stimulation in temporal lobe seizure or epilepsy models. Meanwhile, our results suggest that responsive HFS of the subiculum had anticonvulsant effects on the first day in terms of less focal seizures and a longer inter-focal seizure interval. These results are in line with the preliminary findings in Nair et al.

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