0 per 100,000, and in the United States they represent only 0.4% of total cancers (65). The different types of primary small intestinal tumors include adenocarcinomas, carcinoid tumors, lymphomas and sarcomas (66,67).
Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine Adenocarcinoma of the small intestine is the most common type of primary malignancy in the small bowel, and generally presents in older males with a higher incidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in African Americans than Caucasians. Most cases are sporadic but reported risk factors include sporadic adenomatous polyps, familial adenomatous polyposis and Crohn’s disease. Presentation may include obstruction, jaundice, GI bleeding and abdominal pain, and often presents at an advanced stage. The most common locations for adenocarcinoma are the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Adenocarcinomas may present as polypoid, infiltrative or constricting lesions, with tumors in the duodenal and ampullary regions generally being Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exophytic in nature (67). Histologically, these tumors are similar to colorectal adenocarcinomas and are characterized by the degree of pleomorphism, complex glandular architecture, luminal necrosis and invasion. Small intestinal adenocarcinomas are CK7+ in more than half of all cases (Figure 5A), unlike normal small intestinal mucosa which is CK7- and colorectal adenocarcinomas which are CK7-/CK20+ (68). Adenocarcinomas of the small bowel are also positive for
CK20 (Figure 5B), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CDX-2 (Figure 5C), and villin (68). Figure 5 Immunohistochemical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical features of small intestinal adenocarcinoma. A. CK7 positivity; B. CK20; C. CDX-2showing diffuse positivity Adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater Adenocarcinoma of ampulla of Vater comprise about 5-6% of cancers arising (69) in the head of the pancreas. These tumors cause obstruction of the bile duct even at a very small size and hence patients often present early in the disease course with jaundice. Two major histologic types have been described:
an intestinal type, arising from the overlying intestinal mucosa of the papilla (intestinal type adenocarcinoma of duodenal papillary origin) and a pancreatobiliary type, derived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from the ductal epithelium which penetrates the duodenal muscularis propria (ampullary carcinoma of pancreatobiliary origin) (69). The intestinal type adenocarcinoma is much more common and has a much Pifithrin-�� solubility dmso better prognosis (70), hence it is important to differentiate these two entities. Fortunately, the immunophenotype of these two types differ, with and the intestinal type adenocarcinoma of duodenal papillary origin being positive for CK7, CK20, MUC2 and CDX-2 but negative for MUC1, MUC5AC and CK17; whereas ampullary carcinoma of pancreatobiliary origin is positive for MUC1, CK7, and CK17 but negative for MUC2 (69,70). Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors are tumor derived from endocrine cells and can arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract.