Usuku et al [33] followed the changes in drug resistance mutatio

Usuku et al. [33] followed the changes in drug resistance mutations in a patient receiving HAART. Mutations detected in the plasma were not present or were infrequently present in the proviral DNA.

The discrepancy persisted for more than 3 years. It is important to emphasize that the peripheral blood pool of lymphocytes represents about 2% of the total number of lymphocytes in normal young adult men [34]. Schnuda et al. [35] showed that the small blood lymphocytes recirculate continuously between the peripheral blood and the lymph nodes in the rat, with each cycle having a duration of less than 3 min. In this article, we report the results of a prospective study assessing the prevalence and persistence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in proviral DNA from purified CD4 cells compared with those in plasma viral RNA before therapy initiation in treatment-naïve patients. We also evaluated the evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in proviral DNA before and after therapy initiation, and plasma RNA mutation patterns in patients remaining treatment-naïve. As 95 to 99% of

infected cells are CD4 cells [36], and in order to confirm the utility of resistance testing in provirus, we used direct sequencing of HIV-1 proviral DNA in purified CD4 cells to follow the evolution of drug resistance mutations in treated and untreated patients and compared the findings to those obtained from HIV-1 viral RNA using the ABI 310 Selleck BAY 80-6946 Prism (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California). We further chose not to use cloning but

direct population sequencing as this is routinely used in clinical settings. Between May 2002 and July 2007, genotypic resistance Chlormezanone testing was performed on cell-free and cell-associated virus from 69 patients who were not receiving treatment (Table 1). The study was approved by the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from each patient. HIV-1 seropositive status was confirmed according to accepted methods. The therapeutic histories of all patients were checked by asking specific questions when they signed the informed consent form and by consulting their clinical records. When documented histories were absent, we contacted the physicians responsible for the patients’ care. This confirmed each patient as HIV drug naïve. Checking the therapeutic histories of all patients can be difficult but is important when studying drug mutations in treatment-naïve patients. Virus was successfully sequenced for 63 of the 69 selected individuals at baseline, both in plasma and in cells. Fifty-eight per cent of the patients were European and 42% non-European, mostly from central Africa. Thirty-nine per cent of the sequenced HIV-1 viruses were subtype B.

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