To date, however, there is no plausible explanation for the proce

To date, however, there is no plausible explanation for the process chain MK0683 ic50 involved in the anthropogenic change of cloud microphysics caused by aerosols. Further, it can be concluded that the detection of changes in essential variables, i.e. cloud albedo, cloud brightness temperature and amount of precipitation, is most pronounced in the source regions of air pollutants. This might indicate the regional character of the processes rather than an influence on a global scale. However, the hydrological cycle and the radiation balance

in Europe were involved. In addition to the knowledge described above, there are significant observations which need further attention in future studies. These results are important constraints for evaluating the nature of cloud-mediated processes and to further quantify the magnitude of human impact on climate in Europe. The first result is related to time series of global irradiance in Estonia (Eerme et al. 2010). Measurement data show a conspicuous low relation of global irradiance for overcast and clear conditions (G/Gclear) during the summers of the late 1970s and the 1980s. Furthermore, the characteristics for normalised surface global solar radiation seem to be conspicuously connected to the results for Germany by Liepert & Kukla (1997), which are mentioned above. In principle, cloud MAPK Inhibitor Library mw properties could have changed as a consequence of anthropogenic

aerosols. However, if this is indeed the case, the origin of the impact has to be identified. Also requiring further investigation is whether both time series could 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase be explained in a similar way by aerosol cloud-mediated processes in Europe. Another result which needs to be taken into account when assessing the influence of European aerosol system on clouds is the behaviour

of organic vapour emissions in Europe. Paasonen et al. (2013) found that rising biogenic organic vapour emissions in response to warming will enhance condensation on particles and their growth to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. The authors specify the strongest negative feedbacks at the most northern and remote sites. Moreover, phytoplankton related emissions, such as dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and volatile organic gases via their transformation into aerosol particles need to be considered for the Baltic Region. The subsequent formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (O’Dowd & de Leeuw 2007) can decrease the shortwave radiation flux at the surface and increase the reflected shortwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere as well as decrease the amount of precipitation (Krüger & Graßl 2011). Thus, biologically produced gases dissolved in oceanic waters and their subsequent emission into the marine troposphere play an important role and are likely to be involved in regional feedback processes in the climate system. Therefore, we need to investigate the influence of changing anthropogenic and natural emissions (e.g.

Comments are closed.