sputigena (12/17, 71%) ( Fig  2) After chemomechanical preparati

sputigena (12/17, 71%) ( Fig. 2). After chemomechanical preparation using irrigation with 0.12% CHX, the same 26 taxa

found in S1 were again detected but with overall reduced prevalence and levels. The most prevalent taxa in S2 samples were D. invisus, A. israelii, P. baroniae, Propionibacterium acidifaciens, and Streptococcus species, all of them found in 6 of 17 (35%) samples ( Fig. 2). The only taxon found at Gefitinib purchase levels above 105 in S2 samples was Bacteroidetes clone X083 (12%). In the NaOCl group, the mean number of target bacterial taxa per canal in S1 was 9 (range, 3-19) and in S2 it was 3 (range, 0-14). Intragroup analysis revealed that this reduction in the number of taxa per canal was highly significant (p < 0.01). In the CHX group, the mean number of target bacterial taxa per canal in S1 was 12 (range, 4-22) and in S2 it was 7 (range, 0-17). This reduction was also statistically significant (p = 0.04). The intergroup comparison showed no significant difference in the number of taxa persisting in S2 samples from canals irrigated with either NaOCl or CHX (p = 0.3). Data about bacterial levels are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. Intragroup analysis Selleck Saracatinib revealed that both groups

performed equally well in reducing the overall levels of the targeted taxa (p < 0.001 for both groups). No significant difference between NaOCl and CHX was observed after intergroup analysis of the S1 to S2 bacterial reduction Rebamipide data (p = 0.07).

The present culture-independent molecular microbiology study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of chemomechanical preparation using either NaOCl or CHX as the irrigant in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis. The parameters examined included bacterial, fungal, and archaeal elimination or reduction to undetectable levels after treatment as evaluated by broad-range PCR. The effects of treatment on the number of bacterial taxa and their levels were evaluated by the checkerboard approach targeting 28 putative endodontic pathogens. A substantial reduction in the bacterial levels and number of taxa was observed after chemomechanical preparation using either irrigants. This finding is in consonance with many other studies 9, 20 and 30, confirming the essential role of chemomechanical procedures in eliminating intraradicular bacteria. These effects are promoted by the mechanical debriding action of instruments and irrigant hydrodynamics and substantially enhanced by the antimicrobial ability of the irrigant solution 3, 4 and 5. No significant differences were observed for chemomechanical preparation protocols using either NaOCl or CHX with regard to the several parameters evaluated including incidence of negative PCR results, reduction in the number of taxa per canal, and reduction in the bacterial levels.

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