In the current issue, Chen et al.2 provide evidence that the chemical entity itself, particularly with respect to dose AZD1208 datasheet and its physiochemical nature (lipophilicity), is a key factor. They assessed the predictive value of dose (≥100 mg per day) and calculated octanol-water partition coefficient (logP > 3) in two independent databases of Food and Drug Administration
(FDA)-approved drugs labeled for the presence or absence of liver injury. The present study confirms previous studies that suggested both factors separately could predict hepatotoxicity3-7 and suggests that a “rule-of-two” which combines both dose and lipophilicity performs better than dose alone, increasing the positive predictive value of dose alone from 85% to 96% (“rule-of-two”) while decreasing the negative predictive value from 55% to 39%.
Whereas only 8 of 114 drugs in the two databases with no DILI concern exhibited positive “rule-of-two,” only half of the hepatotoxic drugs were positive. Thus, AUY-922 manufacturer false-positives were low but false-negatives were substantial. Clearly, the “rule-of-two” is far from perfect and cannot replace preclinical testing but could be useful as an additional guide in compound selection during drug development. One interesting clinical application of the “rule-of-two” was illustrated by performance in six cases of DILI from LiverTox who received multiple medications; in five cases the implicated drug was the only
one exhibiting a positive “rule-of-two.” This suggests that application of “rule-of-two” or a facsimile may improve causality assessment in the setting of multiple medications. Why should Tacrolimus (FK506) dose and lipophilicity be of predictive value? Likely this is because of the need for the liver to be exposed to a threshold level of the parent drug and/or reactive metabolite. Lipophilic drugs are cleared by the liver and generally require biotransformation to be eliminated. As noted by the authors, a significant relationship was observed between the extent of hepatic metabolism and logP (calculated-water partition coefficient). Therefore, logP may simply be a surrogate for extensive biotransformation and hepatic exposure to a reactive metabolite. Indeed, others have shown the increased predictive value of combining dose with information on hepatic metabolism.