In no case, did Mn exposure decrease monoamine neurotransmitters. Moreover, where changes in the metabolites HVA or 5-HIAA were seen, they were decreased in one or both of the Tofacitinib ic50 Mn exposed groups. What is more difficult to ascertain was the age by region effects of Mn exposure. Overall, P11 showed the fewest effects; only one P11 effect was seen (P11 Mn50 increase in hippocampal NE). It seems likely that since Mn exposure began on P4, and if the effects of Mn are cumulative, P11 may have been too soon after exposure to show many effects. In
terms of number of effects, P19 appeared to be the most sensitive; most of the effects found were at this age. P29 showed an intermediate number of effects, the most striking
of which were Mn-induced increases in hippocampal NE and hypothalamic NE and DA. While these effects were not always dose-dependent, in general the Mn100 groups showed more effects than the Mn50 groups. Table 2 shows a summary of the pattern of monoamine changes. Two other studies from the same laboratory measured striatal DA concentrations in rats after developmental Mn exposure. Rats were exposed to Mn by gavage from P1-21 and reduced striatal DA was found, on P40, 19 days after the end of treatment  and on P65, 41 days after the end of treatment . While these findings contrast with ours, Tran et al.’s findings were long after treatment whereas ours were during treatment. Two studies, from the same group, measured DA D1 and D2 receptors and DA transporter (DAT) in frontal cortex, striatum, MG-132 supplier Oxalosuccinic acid and nucleus accumbens  and . Data for rats at two different
ages are reported, P24 and P107 after P1-21 Mn exposure to 25 or 50 mg/kg/day. The P24 data are the same in both reports. Effects were varied by brain region, age and outcome. D1 levels were unchanged in frontal cortex, decreased in striatum at P24 but not at P107, and decreased in nucleus accumbens at 50 mg/kg at P24 but only in the 25 mg/kg group at P107. D2 levels were increased in frontal cortex in the 50 mg/kg group at both ages, whereas D2 was unchanged at both ages and at both doses in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. DAT levels were unchanged in frontal cortex, and reduced in the 50 mg/kg group at P24 but not at P107. These DA-related markers suggest a complex pattern of decreases in D1 and DAT in basal ganglia with opposite increases in D2 in frontal cortex. Another study in rats looked at postsynaptic markers of monoaminergic signaling, , including striatal ERK1/2, AKT, and DARPP32 phosphorylation, after short-term, P8-12, exposure to Mn by i.p. injection and these parameters were measured 48 h later on P14. They used three doses of Mn (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) and found increased pERK1/2 at 20 mg/kg Mn, increased pAKT at 10 and 20 mg/kg, and increased pDARPP32 at 5 and 10 mg/kg.