Immunostaining PD0332991 chemical structure revealed that PN-1 is expressed throughout the amygdala, primarily in γ-aminobutyric acid containing neurons of the central amygdala and intercalated

cell masses (ITCs) and in glia. Fear extinction was severely impaired in mice lacking PN-1 (PN-1 KO). Consistent with a role for the basal nucleus of the amygdala in fear extinction, we found that, compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls, PN-1 KO mice exhibited decreased numbers of Fos-positive neurons in the basal nucleus after extinction. Moreover, immunoblot analysis of laser-microdissected amygdala sub-nuclei revealed specific extinction-induced increases in the level of phosphorylated alpha-calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II Selleck Metformin in the medial ITCs and in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala in WT mice. These responses were altered in PN-1 KO mice. Together, these data indicate that lack of extinction in PN-1 KO mice is associated with distinct changes in neuronal activity across the circuitry of the basal and central nuclei and the ITCs, supporting a differential impact on fear extinction of these amygdala substructures. They also suggest a new role for serine protease inhibitors such as PN-1 in modulating fear conditioning and extinction. Serine proteases and their inhibitors are expressed and secreted by many cell types in the adult CNS.

They play a role in the neuronal response to injuries and their expression can be regulated by neuronal activity (Melchor & Strickland, 2005; Wang et al., 2008). They have also been reported to modulate neuronal function, e.g. through controlled proteolysis of extracellular proteins or indirectly through interaction with membrane proteins, thereby affecting cell surface receptor-mediated neuronal

signaling (Melchor & Strickland, 2005; Samson & Medcalf, 2006; Samson et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2008). Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a serine protease inhibitor of the serpin family (Gloor et al., 1986). While constitutively expressed by glial and neuronal subpopulations, its expression is also regulated by neuronal activity (Kvajo et al., 2004). PN-1 levels influence synaptic properties, including long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses in the hippocampus (Lüthi et al., Amrubicin 1997). Mice lacking PN-1 (PN-1 KO) have reduced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic currents in hippocampal CA1 and cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons, and display impaired vibrissa sensory processing (Lüthi et al., 1997; Kvajo et al., 2004). Another prominent area of PN-1 expression is the amygdala – a central part of the circuits assigning emotional valence to sensory stimuli (Davis, 1992; LeDoux, 2000). These circuits have been extensively investigated using the paradigm of classical auditory fear conditioning.

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