g., Renvall et al., 2003; Coelho et al., 2000; Boyle, 2004). However, there is
very little evidence for generalised treatment effects with participants with a deficit at stage 2 i.e., in accessing the phonological form. This is the case whether the intervention is semantic (e.g., Howard et al., 2006; Lorenz and Ziegler, 2009) or involves cueing as in the present study. The lack of generalisation found for those with a naming deficit arising at stage 2 (i.e., participants with naming difficulties but nevertheless relatively good lexical-semantic processing and good phonological encoding: P.H., O.L., N.K., D.C., L.M., D.J.) aligns with prediction (a) (Section 1.5). The partial generalisation from Phonological Feature Analysis (Leonard et al., 2008) remains to be further
explored in relation selleck kinase inhibitor to level of anomic deficit. In their study, three of 10 participants improved Atezolizumab in naming treated and untreated items (P2, P3, P4). Two of these show high proportions of phonologically related errors (formal or non-word) with the third, P4, making mainly errors of omission, which may suggest good self-monitoring. In common with most studies in the field, the effect of word length in picture naming is not investigated. Further data in line with the claims arising from the present paper come from the fact that two (P2 & P4) of the three participants who showed generalised effects also show less of a semantic deficit relative to their study participants (taking the better of the spoken and written word to picture matching scores;
Leonard et al., 2008, Table 2). In the studies with participants learn more where the focus of the deficit appears to be in phonological encoding (M.B. Franklin et al., 2002; H.M., T.E., P.P. present study; see also T.V. Fisher et al., 2009) there was generalisation to untreated items. This is in line with our second prediction (b) (Section 1.5). However, not all those who make a high proportion of phonological errors in picture naming show generalisation to untreated items; those with a co-occurring semantic deficit (I.K., F.A., C.M. & G.B. in present study) did not demonstrate change on untreated items. A possible explanation for this outcome is that due to the lexical-semantic deficit, during word retrieval there is insufficient activation feeding through to the level of phonological encoding; the level at which the generalisation to untreated items is occurring. It is only when lexical-semantic processing remains relatively well preserved, which enables partial activation at the level of phonological encoding, that the intervention can produce generalised changes. The outcomes also relate to the more general question of whether intervention should target relative strengths or weaknesses in individuals’ language processing.