Furthermore, an intensification of the oceanic heat transport at 45°N is consistent with a capture of heat from the atmosphere into the ocean between 30°N and 45°N, as seen along the North Atlantic Current path (Fig. 11 bottom colours). Fig. 12 shows the annual mean transport of freshwater (in mSv, using 34.8 psu as a reference) across the same selected sections. This figure can be compared to estimates by Talley et al., 2003) (the net volume transports were removed prior to computing the freshwater transports).
The sign of these transports generally agrees with the observations: The ACC transports freshwater eastward, which enters at the southern edge of each oceanic basin. In the North Atlantic and North Pacific, on the other hand,
the net transport is southward, and convergences occur in the subtropics, where evaporation Target Selective Inhibitor Library (colours) is maximum. Comparing CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO, we notice generally click here a qualitative compensation in terms of density between the anomalous heat and freshwater transports, in particular in the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and zonally in the Southern Ocean. In the tropics, anomalies of the total atmospheric freshwater fluxes out of the ocean are generally strong, except in the Pacific, and consistent with a northward shift of the ITCZ in CM5_piStart in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, as described above. In the Pacific, anomalous freshwater fluxes are rather indicative of a stronger SPCZ (or double ITCZ) (not shown). All these changes in the atmospheric flux induce associated salinity anomalies in surface as described earlier (Fig. 4). Finally, as indicated above, strong changes are also found in the northern Indian basin, where colder conditions in CM5_piStart induce less evaporation GNE-0877 and weakened northward freshwater. Fig. 13 shows the total net mass transport across the same selected sections as for the heat and freshwater
transport in CM5_piStart (top) and in terms of differences between CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO (bottom). The net mass transport is generally stronger in CM5_piStart than in CM5_RETRO. At the Drake Passage, in particular, the total transport amounts about 109 Sv in CM5_piStart, which is 23% more than in CM5_RETRO, but still weaker than the value inferred from observations (136.7 ± 7.8 Sv Cunningham et al., 2003). Such an intensification of the ACC from AR4 to AR5 configuration is very close to the 21% increase diagnosed in the forced configurations described above. This suggests an important role of the changes in the oceanic component in this evolution (rather than changes in the atmosphere, impacting wind stress for instance). The weak ACC intensity was a known deficiency of the IPSL-CM4 climate model (e.g. Marti et al., 2010; Marini et al., 2010). The latter is enhanced from 50 Sv in CM4_piCtrl (references above) to 98 Sv in CM5_piCtrl (Fig. 1), thus an increase of roughly 50%, which is twice as much as what is found from CM5_RETRO to CM5_piStart (Fig.