For multicenter studies, the diagnosis of MHE or CHE by consensus should utilize at least two of the current validated testing strategies: paper-pencil
(PHES) and one of the following: computerized (CRT, ICT, SCAN, or Stroop) or neurophysiological (CFF or EEG). In the clinical routine or single-center studies, investigators may use tests for assessing the severity of HE with which they are familiar, provided that normative reference data are available and the tests have been validated for use in this patient population. High blood-ammonia levels alone do not add any diagnostic, staging, or prognostic value in HE patients Trametinib with CLD. However, in case an ammonia level is checked in a patient with OHE and it is normal, the diagnosis of HE is in question. For ammonia-lowering drugs, repeated measurements of ammonia may be helpful to test the efficacy. There may be logistic challenges to accurately measure blood ammonia, which should
be taken into consideration. Ammonia is reported either in venous, arterial blood, or plasma ammonia, so the relevant normal should be used. Multiple methods are available, but measurements should only be employed when laboratory standards allow for reliable analyses. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) or other image modality scans do not contribute diagnostic or grading information. However, the risk of intracerebral selleck chemicals hemorrhage is at least 5-fold increased in this
patient group, and the symptoms may be indistinguishable, so a brain scan is usually part of the diagnostic workup of first-time HE and on clinical suspicion of other pathology. 3. Hepatic encephalopathy should be treated as a continuum ranging from unimpaired cognitive function with intact consciousness through coma (GRADE III, A, 1). 4. The diagnosis of HE is through Y27632 exclusion of other causes of brain dysfunction (GRADE II-2, A, 1). 5. Hepatic encephalopathy should be divided into various stages of severity, reflecting the degree of self-sufficiency and the need for care (GRADE III, B, 1). 6. Overt hepatic encephalopathy is diagnosed by clinical criteria and can be graded according the WHC and the GCS (GRADE II-2, B, 1). 7. The diagnosis and grading of MHE and CHE can be made using several neurophysiological and psychometric tests that should be performed by experienced examiners (GRADE II-2, B, 1). 8. Testing for MHE and CHE could be used in patients who would most benefit from testing, such as those with impaired quality of life or implication on employment or public safety (GRADE III, B, 2). 9. Increased blood ammonia alone does not add any diagnostic, staging, or prognostic value for HE in patients with CLD. A normal value calls for diagnostic reevaluation (GRADE II-3, A, 1). At this time, only OHE is routinely treated.