Conclusions. The most
common pathogens causing TD in Nepal were Campylobacter, ETEC, and Shigella. Because resistance to fluoroquinolone or azithromycin was similar, one of these drugs could be used as empiric therapy for TD with the other reserved for treatment failures. Diarrhea remains the most common illness among visitors and foreign residents in Kathmandu and travelers overall.1–5 In an exit poll at the Kathmandu airport, 68% of visitors experienced diarrhea in Nepal.3 The risk of diarrhea among expatriates in Nepal persists at a monthly rate of 27%.6 In a multicenter study reporting rate ratios for gastrointestinal infection after international travel, Nepal had the highest risk among 28 countries around the world.7 There are no published reports on antibiotic susceptibility for travelers’ diarrhea (TD) in Nepal. Clinical decisions based on microbiologic data from past LBH589 molecular weight research3,5 and data from other countries in the region8 may not be accurate, necessitating updated investigations. A joint project by the Canadian International Water and Energy Consultants (CIWEC) clinic and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences
(AFRIMS) in Bangkok was initiated in response to anecdotal reports of fluoroquinolone (FQ) failures among diarrheal cases seen by CIWEC practitioners in the late 1990s. The purpose of the initiative was to redefine the etiology of diarrhea in travelers and expatriates, to characterize antibiotic susceptibility Etofibrate patterns of microbiologic isolates and to A-769662 datasheet make comparisons with prior published data.3,5 Following approvals by the Nepal Health Research Council (FWA# 00000957) and the Human Use Research Committee, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (FWA# 00000015), a case-control study was conducted with written informed consent from March 15, 2001, to March 15, 2003, at the CIWEC clinic. Persons studied were over age 18 years from high socioeconomic countries (United States, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand). Cases were those who reported at least three unformed stools in the preceding 24 hours and with
a stool specimen that conformed to the shape of the container. To provide a seasonal sampling over the 2 years of enrollment, the first two patients of the day who fulfilled these criteria were recruited. Controls were individuals seen at CIWEC during the same time period for complaints other than diarrhea who denied having diarrhea in the preceding 2 weeks and were willing to provide a stool sample. Cases and controls were not matched for age, gender, nationality, or duration of time in Nepal, so we could investigate these factors. All enrollees completed a standardized questionnaire detailing demographic and clinical factors, antibiotic use, recent travel history, and duration of time in Nepal. Cases were asked subjective questions characterizing the diarrhea. Enrollees were categorized as tourists or residents.