An option to ensure that the transfusion service avoids missing a

An option to ensure that the transfusion service avoids missing antibodies to low incidence antigens may be to include testing red cells with low incidence antigens in pre-transfusion antibody screening. This may be an approach suitable for reference transfusion medicine laboratories and suggested antigens may include Vel, Jsa, Deigo, Cw, Wra and Kpa. This has the advantage Antidiabetic Compound Library cost of avoiding acute hemolytic transfusion reactions due to missed alloantibodies, but has the disadvantage of added time and expense. In an ideal world,

transfusion requisitions would contain a wealth of relevant clinical information to enable laboratories to select appropriate patients in whom to perform this selleck inhibitor extended testing. Computer provider order entry (CPOE) may be a tool that will enable this and it is important for transfusion specialists to advocate for technologies that will allow the safest, yet most fiscally responsible testing algorithms in their hospitals [12]. Until such utopian visions for transfusion testing and therapy are

achieved, it is important to report cases such as these that may assist others in timely identification and management of similar transfusion reactions, and enable reflection on the various strategies for antibody identification and crossmatching policies and procedures and their impact on patient care. “
“The current obesity and chronic disease epidemics in many countries (World Health Organization 2011) appear to be due to a combination of factors including the aging of the population and a variety of lifestyle changes such as reduced physical activity and overconsumption of energy and energy dense foods (CDC 2012;

NHMRC 2013; Peeters 2007). These foods are characterized as being high in fat, sugar, salt and energy but lacking in essential nutrients, often referred to as energy dense, nutrient poor (EDNP) products (Kant 2000). Selleck Ixazomib They include fast foods and snack products such as biscuits, confectionary and sugar-sweetened beverages (Rangan et al. 2011). In the United States, these products increasingly dominate the national diet (Guenther et al 2006; Krebs-Smith et al., 2010). Similarly, in Australia in 2013, 41% of energy in the national diet was derived from EDNP foods (NHMRC 2013). Over the past two decades the roles of EDNP products, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, high fat fast foods and highly refined carbohydrate products (e.g. cakes, cookies) in the etiology of obesity have come under closer scrutiny (Brownell & Wadden 1992; Fung et al. 2005; Kant 2004; Lopez-Garcia et al. 2004; McNaughton et al. 2011; Nettleton et al. 2006; Schulze et al. 2005).

Particular interesting genes, like sulfatases, were manually eval

Particular interesting genes, like sulfatases, were manually evaluated. The genome of R. sallentina SM41 features 6893 predicted

ORFs, of which 4825 are shared with other Rhodopirellula species. A rather high number of 138 ORFs was found to be shared with planctomycetes outside of the genus Rhodopirellula. Based on 16S rDNA similarities and ANI analyses, R. sallentina SM41 clusters together with and Rhodopirellula rubra SWK7 are rather distantly related to R. baltica SH1T. The type strain for R. rubra has been described by Bondoso et al. (in press). Like for all presented Rhodopirellula draft genomes, the number of ATM/ATR mutation sulfatase encoding genes was exceptionally high ( Wegner et al., 2013) ( Table 1.). A tendency for sulfatase gene clustering was observed, although only few sulfatase maturation systems were identified. While all Rhodopirellula species harbor only few genes for peptidoglycan synthesis, one additional murA gene has been identified in the R. sallentina SM41 draft genome. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited in INSDC find more (DDBJ/EBI-ENA/GenBank) under the accession number ANOH00000000. The sequence associated contextual (meta)data are MIxS (Yilmaz et al., 2011) compliant. This study was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education

and Research (BMBF) as part of the Microbial Interactions in Marine Systems (MIMAS) project (Grant No. 03F0480A). “
“Rhodopirellula belongs to the ubiquitous bacterial phylum Planctomycetes. Members of the Planctomycetes are abundant in particulate fractions of marine ecosystems and considered as important participants in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. They convert substantial amounts of organic material, such as “marine snow” (aggregates of zooplankton, phytoplankton and protists), into carbon dioxide. Their importance in marine systems was recently discovered and documented in several publications ( Glöckner et al., 2003,

Winkelmann and Harder, 2009 and Winkelmann et al., 2010). A collection of 70 Rhodopirellula strains obtained from different European seas revealed 13 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). These were Edoxaban defined by taxonomic studies with a combination of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence comparisons, DNA–DNA-hybridization (DDH) and a novel multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) approach that employed primers in putatively conserved regions of nine housekeeping genes ( Winkelmann et al., 2010). First evidence for a limited habitat spectrum of these sessile bacteria was detected by annotation and genome comparison of the strains. Here we report the permanent draft genome sequence of Rhodopirellula maiorica strain SM1 (= JCM 17615 = DSM 24050) which originated from sediment near Pt. Andratx, Mallorca, Spain (39.5446 N 2.3875 E) ( Winkelmann and Harder, 2009).

Further supporting this, a negative feedback loop has been descri

Further supporting this, a negative feedback loop has been described, where mTOR/S6K1 activation results in PI3K signalling inhibition by suppressing the insulin receptor-dependent cascade [47], [48] and [49]. Hence, it remains to be determined whether the anti-proliferative response in cells incubated with PCP is accompanied Selleck Crizotinib by mTORC1 inhibition and whether suppression of AKT phosphorylation at S473 can be induced by rictor down-regulation. The NFκB signalling pathway is implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular functions including inflammation, proliferation,

stress-response and programmed cell death control. Moreover, its de-regulation has been linked to chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer cells. We have examined the effect of PCP on the activation of NFκB/p65. Our data demonstrate that PCP leads to decreased phosphorylation of NFkB/p65 at S536 and reduction of its protein expression levels in MIA PaCa-2 cells. NFκB/p65 phosphorylation at

S536 results in nuclear localization and stimulation of NFκB transactivation functions. We show here, that the TNFα-mediated stimulation selleck inhibitor of NFκB/p65 is suppressed in the presence of PCP providing mechanistic evidence that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of PCP are associated with inhibition of the NFκB signalling pathway. Apart from the carcinogenic properties of PCP reported in previous work, this study shows that PCP exerts toxic effects in human pancreatic cancer cells involving mitochondria damage, activation of apoptosis-related proteins

and lysosomal cysteine proteases. Data reported here, are consistent with the involvement of three major pro-survival signalling cascades, i.e. the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK and NF-κB pathways but also with the inhibition of a nodal pro-survival kinase, i.e. protein kinase CK2. These data aim to provide initial insight into the anti-proliferative effects of PCP in pancreatic cancer cells and form the basis for more advanced studies on the mechanism Interleukin-2 receptor of action of chlorinated aromatic compounds in vivo. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. We are grateful to Dr. Lars F. Olsen and Anita Lunding for technical assistance and advice during the fluorometric data collection. We thank the Drug Synthesis and Chemistry Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, USA, for providing us with plated and vialed samples from the various compound sets. This work was supported by Grosserer M. Brogaard og Hustrus Mindefond and the Danish Council for Independent Research-Natural Sciences (grant Nr. 1323-00212A to BG). “
“Cypermethrin is a type II synthetic pyrethroid that is widely used as pest control in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, health programs, and private homes.

Our aim was first to evaluate the effects of DON on intestinal mo

Our aim was first to evaluate the effects of DON on intestinal morphology in animals chronically exposed to the toxin, as well as in jejunal explants. The intestinal lesional and

morphological scores were measured. The main lesional changes observed in both explants and intestine from animals exposed to DON were villi fusion and atrophy accompanied by focal apical necrosis of enterocytes. Morphological changes included a reduction in the number of villi and cuboid or flattened enterocytes. The changes were more severe in intestinal explants exposed ex vivo to 10 μM of DON (P = 0.001). Ingestion of DON induced a significant decrease in the histological score in the jejunum (15%) in the in vivo model, whereas in the ex vivo assay, exposition to 5 and 10 μM of DON induced a score decrease Ibrutinib molecular weight of 26% and EGFR inhibitor 49.4%, respectively ( Fig. 1). MAPK are known to be important signaling modulators in cell proliferation and apoptosis (Petska, 2008) and activation of this pathway

by mycotoxins was reported in murine macrophages (Moon and Pestka, 2002) as well as in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (Pinton et al., 2010). Therefore, western blot assay was used to evaluate the ability of DON to induce MAPK phosphorylation. Exposure of jejunal explants for 4 h to 10 μM of DON induced a significant phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and p38 compared to control group (2.61 fold increase, P = 0.05 and 5.76 fold increase,

P = 0.001, respectively), ADAM7 whereas no changes were observed when explants were exposed to 5 μM of DON. Similar findings were observed in jejunal samples of animals fed 2.3 mg of DON/kg for 35 days. As shown in Fig. 2 an increase of p38 (61%, P = 0.01) and ERK (48%, P = 0.01) phosphorylation was observed. Of note, in both experimental models, a slight but not significant increase of the expression of phosphorylated JNK was observed ( Fig. 3). The intestinal tract represents the first barrier against ingested food contaminants, as mycotoxins, and has also an important role in immune functions (Turner, 2009). Chronic exposure of intestinal tissues to low doses of DON induces changes in villi structure and cytokine expression in pigs (Bracarense et al., 2012). One of the proposed mechanisms of the deleterious effect of DON is the activation of the MAPK pathway via a mechanism called “ribotoxic stress response” ( Petska, 2008). To investigate the ability of DON to activate the MAPK, when administered at low doses, we used two experimental approaches: the in vivo exposure of pigs to DON contaminated feed and the ex vivo treatment of jejunal explants with the toxin. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated that MAPK activation occurs in the intestinal epithelium of piglets fed for 35 days a diet contaminated with low doses of DON.

, 2004) It should be emphasised, however, that BPs do protect ag

, 2004). It should be emphasised, however, that BPs do protect against oxidative and frame-shift mutation when present extracellularly, indicating a clear role for BPs in neutralising mutagens before entering cells. Furthermore, it should be noted that BR causes apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro ( Keshavan et al., 2004), providing an additional mechanism for chemoprevention. These data further emphasise the importance of therapeutically elevating BR concentrations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer

( McCarty, 2007). Reports to indicate that KU-57788 cell line BV and BRDT are readily absorbed across cultured enterocytes ( Bulmer et al., 2008a) support this theory. These data confirm that potential anti-mutagenic BP effects in vivo could be induced by increasing concentrations in the gut lumen ( Bulmer et al., 2011) where food-borne mutagens are found, or by increasing blood BP content in vivo to impart protection from DNA damage ( Wallner et al., 2012). Although the results of these in vitro experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in vivo settings, the results suggest BPs in the extracellular milieu (e.g., in the gut lumen/blood) could play a key role in cellular protection, by intercepting CX-5461 solubility dmso mutagens before they

arrive at their site of action (e.g., DNA). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Grant number P21162-B11. “
“Living organisms Fludarabine solubility dmso use a series of integral membrane protein complexes for energy conversion and ATP synthesis (Hatefi, 1985). In addition to their crucial role in energy production and metabolic pathways, the mitochondrial complexes also play key roles in integrating cell death stimuli and executing the

apoptotic program (Navarro and Boveris, 2007). Accordingly, several human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease, are associated with mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibition, energy metabolism impairment and oxidative stress (Beal, 1998 and Nicholls and Budd, 2000). Additionally, biochemical studies indicate a decline of electron transport and in some bioenergetic activities of mitochondria during aging and ischemia–reperfusion (Cadenas and Davies, 2000, Caspersen et al., 2005, Cortopassi and Wong, 1999, Hagen et al., 1998, Hauptmann et al., 2006, Navarro and Boveris, 2007, Nicholls, 2002, Saris and Eriksson, 1995 and Sastre et al., 2003). Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction can be associated with different degenerative cellular processes. Organoselenium and organotellurium compounds have been extensively studied because of their potential antioxidant capacity (Arteel and Sies, 2001, Barbosa et al., 2006, Barbosa et al., 2008, de Bem et al., 2009, de Freitas et al., 2009, Hort et al., 2011, Moretto et al., 2007, Nogueira and Rocha, 2011, Parnham and Graf, 1991, Prauchner et al.

Topics of the Congress include will focus on various aspects of p

Topics of the Congress include will focus on various aspects of physical activity and nutrition, including psychological

well-being, special groups (children, adolescents, elderly, athletes, people with disabilities), measurement issues, chronic diseases, public health, weight management, recreation, and public policy. For more information, visit “
“ADA Calendar 2011 ADA Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo September 24-27, 2011 San Diego, CA 2012 ADA Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo October 6-9, 2012 Philadelphia, PA 2013 ADA Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo October 19-22, 2013 Houston, TX Notice of the Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo selleck chemicals (FNCE) Member Meeting of the American Dietetic Association Notice is hereby given that,

pursuant to the Board of Directors, the annual meeting of members will convene at the Association’s Food & Nutrition Conference & Expo at 4 pm on Saturday, September 24, 2011, at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego, CA. Full registration for members Bcl-2 inhibitor is $349 if postmarked on or before August 12, 2011 or $439 after August 12, 2011.—Sylvia Escott-Stump, MA, RD, LDN, President, American Dietetic Association. Members often inquire about donating their old Journals to a good cause, but don’t know where to start. The Web site for the Health Sciences Library at the University of Buffalo provides a list of organizations that accept donations of old journals and redistribute them to developing countries, found at The Journal encourages our readers to take advantage of this opportunity to share our knowledge. September 21-23, 2011, Stewart Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Purdue University’s Ingestive Behavior Research Center is hosting an international conference on flavor and feeding. Twenty-five renowned speakers will explore flavor’s pivotal role in health and diet-related disorders as well

as identify areas of future research. Session Cobimetinib topics will include: What is flavor and why does it matter?; peripheral sensory signaling and feeding; central integration; flavor and the consumer; flavor in the food industry; and future directions. Registration is now open. To obtain information or to register, visit October 25-27, 2011, Hotel DoubleTree by Hilton, Košice, Slovakia. The next International Scientific Conference on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Food and Function 2011, will facilitate worldwide co-operation between scientists and will focus on current advances in research on nutraceuticals and functional foods and their present and future role in maintaining health and preventing diseases.

25 In addition to its hemostatic properties, ABS may have therape

25 In addition to its hemostatic properties, ABS may have therapeutic benefit attributable to possible anti-infective, 26, 27, 28 and 29 antifungal, 30 antineoplastic, and wound-healing 31 properties that further allow restoring and maintaining tissue hemostasis. 4 The most novel endoscopic hemostatic technology is a proprietary material, designated as TC-325, with brand name Hemospray (Cook Medical Inc, Bloomington, Ind). It contains no human or animal proteins or botanicals and has no known allergens. TC-325 is a highly absorptive compound with a multimodal mechanism of action. When put in contact with moisture (eg, blood or tissue) in the GI tract, the powder becomes cohesive

and adhesive. As check details a result, TC-325 forms a mechanical barrier that adheres to and covers the bleeding site, achieving very rapid hemostasis, usually within seconds. After approximately 24 to 72 hours (the exact lag time remains unknown but could be shorter), the adherent layer subsequently sloughs off Alpelisib mouse into the lumen from the mucosal wall and is completely eliminated from the GI tract.32 Although the hemostatic property of this agent is thought to relate principally

to its quick application and rapid achievement of full initial hemostasis through mechanical tamponade, absorption of the fluid component of blood ultimately also leads to concentration of clotting factors and cellular elements. Last, it has also been postulated that TC-325 may activate the clotting cascade along with aggregating platelets, forming a fibrin plug.33, 34 and 35 In a recent study by Holster et al,36 the mechanism of action of TC-325 was evaluated in an ex Resveratrol vivo model. Assessment of the extrinsic clotting pathway through prothrombin

time analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease in clotting times in the presence of TC-325. In addition, the authors concluded that alternative hemostatic mechanisms may also be in play. TC-325 concentrates blood cells and clotting factors, creating a physical lattice that may further favor hemostasis. In summary, TC-325 appears to principally affect hemostasis through its ability to quickly absorb water, creating a physical barrier and a local lattice, delivering a tamponade effect at the bleeding site. It alters clotting times in ex vivo studies, but improved characterization of the clinical implications of these findings and determination of possible additional mechanisms require further study. Figure 1 illustrates the currently postulated mechanisms of action of TC-325. EndoClot37 (EndoClot Plus Inc, Santa Clara, Calif) consists of absorbable modified polymers and is intended to be used as adjuvant hemostatic agent to control bleeding in the GI tract.38 It is a biocompatible, nonpyogenic, and starch-derived compound that rapidly absorbs water from serum and concentrates platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation proteins at the bleeding site to accelerate the clotting cascade.

For each assay, the XTT solution was thawed on ice and mixed with

For each assay, the XTT solution was thawed on ice and mixed with the menadione solution at 20:1 (v/v). Tokens with biofilm were gently placed BGB324 molecular weight inside another pre-sterilised flat bottomed 24-well tissue culture plate and 2 mL of the XTT solution (PBS + 200 mM glucose-XTT-menadione) were added to each well.

The plates were covered with aluminium foil and incubated in the dark under agitation at 37 °C for 3 h.22 Thereafter, the solution was centrifuged and 500 μL were transferred to spectrophotometer cuvettes. The bioactivity assay was performed using a spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and the readings were recorded at 490 nm. The bioactivity assays were performed in triplicate in three independent experiments on different days (n = 9). The tokens with biofilms were gently placed inside pre-sterilised flat bottomed 24-well tissue culture plates and stained using a Live/Dead BacLight viability kit (Invitrogen-Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA). A

kit consisting of SYTO-9 and propidium iodide (PI) was used. STYO-9 is a green fluorescent nucleic acid stain, generally labelling both live and dead microorganisms. PI, in contrast, is a red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain and penetrates only the cells with damaged Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor membranes, thus only the dead cells are visualised. Biofilms were incubated with SYTO-9 and PI at 30 °C for 20 min in the dark before CLSM analyses. The images of stained biofilms were captured using a CLSM system (Leica Microsystems CMS, Mannheim, Germany). A series of images were obtained for each position at 1 μm intervals in the z-axis to obtain a three dimensional view of the biofilms (from substratum to the top of the biofilms). Five representative randomly selected positions from each corner and the middle of the tokens were examined for each token, in two independent experiments on different days (n = 10). The same protocol and configurations were used for CLSM analysis (×63 objective lens without zoom) in order to obtain all images from control or experimental groups. COMSTAT analysis is a software program for quantification

of three-dimensional biofilm structures. It analyses stacks of images acquired with CLSM. Z-series images of biofilms after 48 h were collected by CLSM. The z-slices of the images were exported to COMSTAT software and analysed. The parameters analysed included bio-volume, 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase average thickness and black spaces of the biofilm. The bio-volume (μm3/μm2) is defined as the number of stained cell pixels in all images [(pixel size)x × (pixel size)y × (pixel size)z] divided by the substratum area of the image stack. 23 The tokens were placed inside a polypropylene tube containing 3 mL of sterilised PBS. Adherent micro-organisms were removed from the tokens by sonication at 7 W for 30 s.24 Once disaggregated, the cells were centrifuged (3000 rpm). The pellets were fixed by immersion in Karnovsky solution prepared in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.

A QFT-G test was performed at the time of this visit; testing

A QFT-G test was performed at the time of this visit; testing Selleck Fulvestrant was performed at a single large commercial laboratory. The QFT-G test results were interpreted according to the manufacturer’s instructions [8]. Active TB disease was excluded using symptom review, physical examination, chest radiography, and, if necessary, sputum collection for acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Clinic providers reviewed

the medical records and extracted data including age, gender, country of origin, length of residence in the United States, TST reaction size measured in millimeters of induration, chest radiograph findings, and risk factors for the development of TB disease. A high-incidence country was defined as a country with an incidence of ≥20 cases of acid-fast smear-positive pulmonary TB per Rapamycin ic50 100,000 persons [9]. A step-wise logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios (ORs) for demographic and clinical factors that were predictive of a positive QFT-G result. Age and TST induration were modeled as continuous variables. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. A review of the study determined that it entailed an assessment of routine public health practice

and was not considered human subjects research. The Institutional Review Board of St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center (Hartford, CT) approved this retrospective cohort study. A total of 100 BCG-vaccinated adults who were referred to the pulmonary clinic because of a positive TST result were included in the study. The median patient age was 34 years, nearly half (46%) were male, and the study participants had been in the United States for a median duration of 4.5 years (range 0–44 years). The participants were from 42 different countries representing the Americas (47%), Europe (20%), Africa (18%), Southeast Asia (6%), the western Pacific (6%), and the eastern Mediterranean (3%). Their birth countries had a median TB incidence of 37 cases per 100,000 population (range 2–312 cases); 57% were from countries

with a high incidence of TB. The median TST induration was 15 mm. Among the 100 persons with positive TST results, 30 (30%) also had a positive QFT-G Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease result (Fig. 1). One QFT-G result was indeterminate, but a repeat test was negative. Twenty-six (46%) of the 57 adults from high-incidence countries were QFT-G positive (Table 1); in contrast, 4 of 43 adults (9%) from low-incidence countries were positive (OR = 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.4–31.1). None had active TB disease. A logistic regression was used to compare tuberculin reactivity. Persons with a TST induration ≥ 16 mm had a more than six fold greater likelihood of having a positive QFT-G result than persons with a smaller TST induration (Table 2). The combination of being from a high-incidence country and having a TST induration ≥ 16 mm also strongly predicted QFT-G positivity (Table 2).

Furthermore, an intensification of the oceanic heat transport at

Furthermore, an intensification of the oceanic heat transport at 45°N is consistent with a capture of heat from the atmosphere into the ocean between 30°N and 45°N, as seen along the North Atlantic Current path (Fig. 11 bottom colours). Fig. 12 shows the annual mean transport of freshwater (in mSv, using 34.8 psu as a reference) across the same selected sections. This figure can be compared to estimates by Talley et al., 2003) (the net volume transports were removed prior to computing the freshwater transports).

The sign of these transports generally agrees with the observations: The ACC transports freshwater eastward, which enters at the southern edge of each oceanic basin. In the North Atlantic and North Pacific, on the other hand,

the net transport is southward, and convergences occur in the subtropics, where evaporation Target Selective Inhibitor Library (colours) is maximum. Comparing CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO, we notice generally click here a qualitative compensation in terms of density between the anomalous heat and freshwater transports, in particular in the Atlantic and the Indian oceans and zonally in the Southern Ocean. In the tropics, anomalies of the total atmospheric freshwater fluxes out of the ocean are generally strong, except in the Pacific, and consistent with a northward shift of the ITCZ in CM5_piStart in the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, as described above. In the Pacific, anomalous freshwater fluxes are rather indicative of a stronger SPCZ (or double ITCZ) (not shown). All these changes in the atmospheric flux induce associated salinity anomalies in surface as described earlier (Fig. 4). Finally, as indicated above, strong changes are also found in the northern Indian basin, where colder conditions in CM5_piStart induce less evaporation GNE-0877 and weakened northward freshwater. Fig. 13 shows the total net mass transport across the same selected sections as for the heat and freshwater

transport in CM5_piStart (top) and in terms of differences between CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO (bottom). The net mass transport is generally stronger in CM5_piStart than in CM5_RETRO. At the Drake Passage, in particular, the total transport amounts about 109 Sv in CM5_piStart, which is 23% more than in CM5_RETRO, but still weaker than the value inferred from observations (136.7 ± 7.8 Sv Cunningham et al., 2003). Such an intensification of the ACC from AR4 to AR5 configuration is very close to the 21% increase diagnosed in the forced configurations described above. This suggests an important role of the changes in the oceanic component in this evolution (rather than changes in the atmosphere, impacting wind stress for instance). The weak ACC intensity was a known deficiency of the IPSL-CM4 climate model (e.g. Marti et al., 2010; Marini et al., 2010). The latter is enhanced from 50 Sv in CM4_piCtrl (references above) to 98 Sv in CM5_piCtrl (Fig. 1), thus an increase of roughly 50%, which is twice as much as what is found from CM5_RETRO to CM5_piStart (Fig.