A few works that focused on new isoforms of annotated genes, such

A few works that focused on new isoforms of annotated genes, such as NANOG and FOXP1, have shown the importance of characterization of novel transcripts Afatinib cell line of PSCs. Thus, some researches, such as ENCODE project and Au’s work attempted to characterize the whole transcriptome of hESCs. Under a certain control of FRR, Au and his colleagues provided a list of novel genes and novel gene isoforms, from which a number of lncRNAs was predicted and their functions in pluripotency regulation were studied

as well. The previous works could not find these novel lncRNAs because of their highly repetitive sequences. Using the latest sequencing techniques, Au’s method overcame this difficulty. Therefore, more efforts are needed to expand and optimize this method to more PSCs, such as iPSC, the other hESC cell lines and embryo cells. As we complete transcriptome profiling of different PSCs and the transition stages between them, we will gain better understanding

of pluripotency. Papers of particular interest, published within the period of review, have been highlighted as: • of special interest “
“Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 2014, 28:78–82 This review comes from this website a themed issue on Cell reprogramming, regeneration and repair Edited by José CR Silva and Renee A Reijo Pera http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2014.09.010 0959-437X/© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). The field of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the process by which one X chromosome in female mammals is transcriptionally inactivated in order to equalize gene

expression in males and females, is now in its sixth decade and has produced a substantial understanding of the cell and molecular biology underlying this epigenetic regulation [1 and 2]. Even though our mechanistic understanding of the events in XCI is quite sophisticated, we are still identifying new players and further refining our understanding as illustrated by recent advances. With the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 [3], a new subfield of XCI emerged to characterize X chromosome state in these cells and their derivatives. This new technology Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) made it possible to examine the same cells in a somatic context as well as an embryonic-like context to determine changes to the X chromosome during cell fate decisions, providing tools to interrogate reprogramming and pluripotency. This review will address new mechanistic advances in mouse and human XCI biology, the role of XCI in cancer initiation and progression, and new data on X chromosome state following reprogramming. Finally, it will discuss a new tool that has the ability to mark XCI in individual cells, which may be able to address many outstanding questions in the field.

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