25 In addition to its hemostatic properties, ABS may have therapeutic benefit attributable to possible anti-infective, 26, 27, 28 and 29 antifungal, 30 antineoplastic, and wound-healing 31 properties that further allow restoring and maintaining tissue hemostasis. 4 The most novel endoscopic hemostatic technology is a proprietary material, designated as TC-325, with brand name Hemospray (Cook Medical Inc, Bloomington, Ind). It contains no human or animal proteins or botanicals and has no known allergens. TC-325 is a highly absorptive compound with a multimodal mechanism of action. When put in contact with moisture (eg, blood or tissue) in the GI tract, the powder becomes cohesive
and adhesive. As check details a result, TC-325 forms a mechanical barrier that adheres to and covers the bleeding site, achieving very rapid hemostasis, usually within seconds. After approximately 24 to 72 hours (the exact lag time remains unknown but could be shorter), the adherent layer subsequently sloughs off Alpelisib mouse into the lumen from the mucosal wall and is completely eliminated from the GI tract.32 Although the hemostatic property of this agent is thought to relate principally
to its quick application and rapid achievement of full initial hemostasis through mechanical tamponade, absorption of the fluid component of blood ultimately also leads to concentration of clotting factors and cellular elements. Last, it has also been postulated that TC-325 may activate the clotting cascade along with aggregating platelets, forming a fibrin plug.33, 34 and 35 In a recent study by Holster et al,36 the mechanism of action of TC-325 was evaluated in an ex Resveratrol vivo model. Assessment of the extrinsic clotting pathway through prothrombin
time analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease in clotting times in the presence of TC-325. In addition, the authors concluded that alternative hemostatic mechanisms may also be in play. TC-325 concentrates blood cells and clotting factors, creating a physical lattice that may further favor hemostasis. In summary, TC-325 appears to principally affect hemostasis through its ability to quickly absorb water, creating a physical barrier and a local lattice, delivering a tamponade effect at the bleeding site. It alters clotting times in ex vivo studies, but improved characterization of the clinical implications of these findings and determination of possible additional mechanisms require further study. Figure 1 illustrates the currently postulated mechanisms of action of TC-325. EndoClot37 (EndoClot Plus Inc, Santa Clara, Calif) consists of absorbable modified polymers and is intended to be used as adjuvant hemostatic agent to control bleeding in the GI tract.38 It is a biocompatible, nonpyogenic, and starch-derived compound that rapidly absorbs water from serum and concentrates platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation proteins at the bleeding site to accelerate the clotting cascade.