The obvious drawback of the MeTROSY approach is that it is not ap

The obvious drawback of the MeTROSY approach is that it is not applicable to 14 out of 20

amino acids. While typically Ganetespib cell line only methyl groups in Ile, Leu, Val are observed [4], specific isotope labeling strategies have also been developed for Met, Ala (reviewed in [5]) and Thr [6]. The limited sequence coverage of MeTROSY can be alleviated to some extent by site-specific introduction of 13CH3 groups at desired positions, for example by site-directed mutagenesis, if the structure allows for it. Such MeTROSY-based methionine scanning of solvent exposed residues has recently been proposed to map binding interfaces [7]. Alternatively, a single methyl probe may be introduced by di-sulfide bond formation with a 13CH3–S group from methylmethanethiosulfonate resulting in the methione-mimic S-methylthiocysteine [8]. Both backbone amide-based TROSY and MeTROSY experiments have proven to allow studies of protein structure, dynamics and interaction in systems as large as 1 MDa (Table 1). In addition, other approaches such 13C direct detection

[9] and [10] or stereo-selective amino acid labeling [11] and [12] can help to study large molecular systems. Yet, despite these advances, low molecular tumbling rates inherently limit the applicability of solution-state NMR. In contrast, the resonance line width in magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) is independent of the protein molecular weight. Recently, Reif find more and co-workers Dimethyl sulfoxide as well as Bertini et al. have shown that also soluble protein complexes can be investigated by ssNMR in an approach referred to as FROSTY

[13] or sedNMR (sedimented NMR) [14]. Strong centrifugal forces during MAS lead to reversible protein sedimentation at the inner wall of the MAS rotor for protein complexes above 100 kDa, effectively creating a solid. Complexes can also be sedimented into the rotor by conventional ultracentrifugation using a dedicated filling-device [15] and [16]. Sedimented ssNMR is thus a promising method to overcome the size barrier in solution NMR. Various types of NMR experiments can provide low-resolution structural information even for large systems. Assuming that the stoichiometry and composition of the macromolecular complex under study are known, these can provide useful insights into binding sites, distances between specific pairs or groups of atoms, and relative orientation of subunits. The most frequently used data and their information content are summarized in Table 2. The workhorse of NMR for interaction studies is chemical shift perturbations (CSP) mapping, a simple comparison of peak positions in spectra before and after adding a (unlabeled) binding partner. Ligand binding induces changes in the chemical environment of the observed protein, which can conveniently be monitored by NMR (Fig. 1).

This work was supported by funding and fellowships from the Brazi

This work was supported by funding and fellowships from the Brazilian Agencies: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Ministério da Educação, Brazil (CAPES-MEC) – Edital Toxinologia (Processo: 23038.006277/2011-85) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, find more Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia, Brazil (CNPq-MCT). “
“Bothrops snake venoms are mainly composed of enzymes such as phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), metalloproteases (SVMPs), and l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), that can induce

a wide range of toxic effects, such as myotoxicity, hemorrhage, blood coagulation, neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity, edema, cellular apoptosis, genotoxicity, as well as others of medical interest, such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antifungal and antiviral activities ( Iwanaga and Suzuki, 1979; Kang et al., 2011; Vonk et al., 2011; Marcussi et al., 2011; Soares, 2012). PLA2s from Bothrops Omipalisib molecular weight venoms are the main components responsible for cellular damage through the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. Those PLA2s known as myotoxins belong to the IIA group of PLA2s and may be classified into two subgroups:

(i) Asp49 myotoxins (for example, Bothrops jararacussu BthTX-II), with low to moderate enzymatic activity, and (ii) Lys49 myotoxins (as B. jararacussu BthTX-I), which do not show any hydrolytic activity on synthetic substrates ( Soares et al., 2004; Lomonte and Gutiérrez, 2011; Lomonte and Rangel, 2012). BjussuMP-II is a P–I class metalloprotease isolated from B. jararacussu venom with molecular mass of 24 kDa, which showed fibrinogenolytic

and caseinolytic activities, without presenting hemorrhagic or myotoxic effects ( Marcussi et al., 2007). An LAAO from Bothrops atrox, named BatxLAAO, is a single-chained glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 67 kDa, pI 4.4 and 12% sugar content. It presents moderate edematogenic activity and does not induce hemorrhage. Moreover, it presents cytotoxic activity on different tumor cells, but not on normal cells (mononuclear cells from peripheral blood) ( Alves et al., 2008). Molecules isolated from venoms show a significant medical-scientific relevance due to their action on cells, and could be used in structural studies in order to improve the understanding of several cell processes and mechanisms. These molecules can also be used as models 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase in to the development of new therapeutic agents that could be used in new therapies for snakebite accidents and pathologies, such as cancer, thrombosis and hypertension (Koh et al., 2006; Lomonte et al., 2010; King, 2011; Koh and Kini, 2012; Soares, 2012). Considering several papers that describe the therapeutic potential of animal venom toxins for various diseases, the evaluation of their toxicity against human cells is necessary to gauge the difference between non effective, therapeutic or toxic doses for these molecules in order to adjust administration protocols.

Irrespective of the spray generation method, it is advisable to m

Irrespective of the spray generation method, it is advisable to measure particle size distribution and other aerosol characteristics and their time-dependent change, including agglomeration, sedimentation, and ageing effects in order to make a thorough safety assessment. Common methods of particle size measurement include, e.g., laser diffraction, use of the cascade impactor and time of flight spectroscopy, but droplets can change

Selleck BYL719 due to ageing processes during the flight phase so care must be taken when analysing measured data. Droplet diameter may decrease by evaporation of volatile constituents. Droplets may disperse after collision with solid surfaces, they may aggregate, and deposit on solid surfaces. Therefore, any spray pattern is subject to constant changes, and the interpretation and application of any such analytical data

to the safety assessment must be carried out keeping in mind the limitations of accuracy and applicability of such data. Furthermore, the setting of product- and method-specific parameters in the establishment of such analytical methods requires great experience and well trained personnel. A detailed overview on particle size measurement methods is given in the guidance document of the European Aerosol Association FEA (FEA European Aerosol Federation, 2009). selleck chemicals To prepare a proper safety assessment for spray products the best knowledge on the inhalation exposure under intended use conditions should be available or estimated. Real time measurements of specific product exposure represent the gold standard, but need complex and extensive study designs. More simple mathematical approaches taking into account worst case defaults can be used as a first step in a tiered approach for exposure assessment. Easily, the concentration of any ingredient in the ambient air can be calculated on the basis of the worst-case estimation Chlormezanone of the applied amount, duration of application as well as the distribution volume, e.g., the volume of a standard

bath room. By using conservative defaults (see below) the calculation of the exposure will overestimate the real situation of human exposure. A clear advantage of this approach is that a safety assessment may be rapidly performed and is independent of extensive measurements. In those cases where a risk assessment on the basis of such an initial conservative procedure does not yield a sufficient safety margin, a refined exposure assessment needs to be conducted. Relevant data that reflect actual application situations may be generated by measuring aerosol concentration and particle size in a model environment (for example a standard bathroom). Reality-based mathematical models (e.g., ConsExpo 4.1 (Bremmer et al., 2006a), BG-Spray (Eickmann, 2007a)) can also be used to quantify aerosol concentrations over time.

The example is challenging, because

The example is challenging, because Crizotinib research buy of the high space-time variability of currents caused by the dominance of tidal currents. We first describe the system, and then illustrate the performance. Then, we describe an application of such a “product” in the context of “search and rescue”. The system was developed in the framework of Coastal Observing SYstem for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) in recent years (Stanev et al., 2011). It uses radial current velocities from three high frequency (HF) radars. The employed assimilation method STOI (spatio-temporal optimal interpolation; Stanev et al., 2014) uses elements of assimilation

filters and smoother. The STOI method does not only interpolate, but also ‘extends’ in space the radar data, which makes possible to generate homogeneous mapped data Docetaxel mw series over areas larger than the observational array (Stanev et al., 2014). Surface currents are analyzed simultaneously using an analysis window of 13 or 24 h, thus continuous surface current trajectories over one or two M2 tidal cycles are obtained. In Fig. 3a, a snapshot of three different descriptions of a surface current field are displayed, namely HF radar observations (green), the result of the data assimilation using STOI (red) and a simulation with the same model, which is employed in STOI, but which is not constrained by the

HF radar observations (free run; blue). The data assimilation changes the description of the current in particular at near coastal grid points, e.g., in the Elbe estuary. Also, the region covered by the

analysis is larger than the area covered by HF radar observations. Fig. 3b shows radial velocities during a M2 tidal cycle for a point, as recorded from a HF radar station (black crosses), the analysis using STOI (green) and the free run mentioned above (blue). Note that the HF data are not available for the entire time – for a period of 4 h, no data have been recorded. Obviously, the data assimilated describe the observations very well, and are capable to “fill” the data gap consistently. An operational product based on this analysis system Atorvastatin may find an application in search and rescue operations. The utility is demonstrated by the large differences for the estimated transport trajectories, when unconstrained current simulations are used, compared to the trajectories derived from analyzed currents. In a transport model, many particles have been released in the center of every grid cell and were then moved with the surface currents derived from the STOI product. The mean travelled distances vary mostly between 2 and 4 km, but in some cases the distance amounts to 5 and more km. Fig. 4 shows 3-day trajectories emanating from six exemplary locations. The black one is run with unconstrained currents, the red one with constrained STOI currents. The wiggles in the trajectories represent the effect of tides.

However, in eukaryotes, genome-wide nucleosome positioning

However, in eukaryotes, genome-wide nucleosome positioning

does not appear to be dictated solely by DNA sequence, as the addition of ATP to chromatin incubated in whole cell extracts is necessary to recapitulate nucleosome phasing in vitro, indicating that ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers play an selleck inhibitor important role in defining nucleosome positions within the cell [ 29]. Yet, other studies have highlighted the importance of AT-rich DNA sequences in maintaining NDRs in vivo [ 30 and 31]. Thus, while the primary sequence of DNA does position nucleosomes in select locations in the genome, trans-acting factors play an equally significant role in over-ruling intrinsic DNA-sequence based nucleosome positioning. Together, evolutionary conserved nucleosome positioning coupled to ATP-driven chromatin remodelers provide a powerful one-two punch, permitting chromatin structure to be flexible and responsive to changing environmental cues from the cell. Despite decades of nucleosome positioning research, surprisingly little information is available on the interplay between key histone variants and nucleosome positioning. Using a 208 bp fragment of DNA, it is apparent simply from monitoring the click here migration of the nucleosomes through a native gel that the histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z both modify the position of the nucleosome upon the DNA in vitro

[ 20]. However, no extant study has yet undertaken the difficult yet exciting task of investigating whether individual histone variants, which are all at subsaturating levels in vivo, manipulate structural motifs within DNA sequences to potentially out-compete other histone variants for certain positions in the genome, or to create specialized chromatin Paclitaxel datasheet structures that are co-dependent on the presence of the histone variant and the sequence of the underlying DNA. While histone

variants play an important role in regulating gene expression, they may also participate in their own epigenetic inheritance, maintaining correct localization on the newly synthesized daughter strands following DNA replication. Using a SILAC-based (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) approach, it was recently determined that after two cell cycles, ∼20% of the core (H3.3/H4)2 tetramer within nucleosomes were split into H3.3/H4 dimers, assembled with newly synthesized H3.3/H4 [32]. These data support a model in which segregated deposition of parental H3.3/H4 after DNA synthesis is responsible for maintaining the local epigenetic state (Figure 2a) [33]. The splitting process appears to be primarily replication-dependent, as treatment with hydroxyurea or aphidicolin significantly reduced splitting events. In contrast, the remaining (H3.3/H4)2 tetramers, along with the canonical (H3.

In cases where the margin of a section is transparent and free of

In cases where the margin of a section is transparent and free of black stains when it is held against sunlight or a bright flame, the section is carefully washed with water and poured onto with an acidic and ideally hot solution (Ac. Ocalic. 0.5, Nat. sulfuros. 0.5, Aq. 200). The section is then gently swung in the solution until the margin is perfectly white and stain free.

If necessary, the acid solution can be changed. Should stains still persist, one has either the option to be satisfied with the result or otherwise restart the process with potassium solution after washing the slice in water. A repetition is also advisable selleck chemicals if the staining was very intense and the layers are thus not distinguishable after the first staining. In such a manner, de-staining can be carried to the extreme. The more de-staining is carried out the brighter the entire slice becomes. This however also applies to the delicate fibres, especially cortical fibres, which can be de-stained to the point where they will fade. If a slice that is too bright and brown it can be stained darker and blue when covered in alkaline solution, an ammonia solution or carbonic lithium. The slice – from now onwards placed on an object slide – is dried in absolute alcohol and the celloidin

is removed with ether alcohol. If the slice was covered with celloidin prior to cutting, it is best to make sure that the side of the slice that was covered with celloidin is find more placed facedown on the stage. It is then lightened in carboxylox (ac.

Carbol. 2. Xyl.6.). One drains the carboxylol a little and presses at least eight layers of blotting paper quickly and strongly on the slice. The uppermost page of blotting paper should not become wet, as parts of the slide will stick to it. The slice is then poured over with warm or Xylol-thinned Canada-balm and covered with a thin glass plate. During microscopy, it is best to look without Cyclooxygenase (COX) aperture using an Abbé microscope. The cortex, whose white matter connections are to be described here, is delimited anteriorly by a frontal plane [fr], which passes tangential to the posterior end of the splenium (Fig. 1 and 2). The natural boundary for the white matter of the occipital lobe, the confluence of the posterior horn in the cella lateralis of the lateral ventricle – the opening of the posterior horn – lies just behind this plane. On the convexity of the medial surface this plane cuts the most anterior part of the precuneus (Fig. 2). On the lateral convexity (Fig. 1) it cuts the gyrus at the end of the Sylvian fissure [supramarginal gyrus], whose most posterior cortical indentation extents into the depths. On the lateral convexity of this three-sided piece of brain, two sulci can be seen running dorso-ventrally [e,k], and three sulci running posterior-anteriorly [s.o. I-III], which all impact on the shape of the underlying white matter due to their depth.

25 mm, film 0 25 mm The operating conditions were as follows: fl

25 mm, film 0.25 mm. The operating conditions were as follows: flow rate = 1.0 mL/min; linear velocity of 24 cm/s; detector temperature of 280 °C; injector temperature of 250 °C; oven Sirolimus temperature of 110°C-5 min/110–215 °C – 5 °C/min/215 °C = 34 min; stripping gas: helium; volume injected 1.0 μL; split 1:50. In order to have a graphical and numerical view of the amount of n-3 EE encapsulated was

determined using the mean results of total lipid content obtained to calculate the encapsulation efficiency (2.2.2), which were multiplied by the EPA + DHA concentration obtained in the fatty acid composition (2.2.6). The evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of wall material (SPI:GA – x1), core material (wall:core – x2) and reticulating agent (TG – x3) on the characteristics of the EE microcapsules, was carried out using the STATISTICA 7.0 (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa,

OK, USA) software, following a 23 central compound selleck compound rotational design (CCRD), with 6 axial points and 4 central points, verifying the possibility of analyzing the results by response surface methodology, where the results of regression coefficients to encapsulation process yield were determined. The same program and trials were used for the means comparison test (verifying differences between trials 19 and 20) by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test, at a significance level of 95% (p ≤ 0.05). Table 1 shows the values obtained for encapsulation process yield and encapsulation efficiency, and Table 2 shows the analysis of variance of the mathematical models obtained for encapsulation process yield. Equation (3) shows the complete regression model (R2 = 0.92; Fcalc/Ftab = 2.98) obtained for the encapsulation process yield (EY). Based on the coefficient of determination (R2), the regression model explained 92% of the responses. equation(3) EY=yi=47.56−3.91×1−1.72×12−2.91×2−1.22×22+0.11×3−0.43×32+1.21x1x2−0.48x1x3−0.68x2x3 Fig. 1 shows the response

surfaces and contour curves obtained for encapsulation process yield, which showed that the effects of the wall material (SPI-GA) concentration and the wall material to core material ratio (wall:core) presented more significant effects than the other variables. Fig. 1 shows that the smaller the core material concentration and the higher the SPI:GA ratio, the higher the encapsulation process yield, the maximum value being obtained for C5 (1.8:1.0 pheromone SPI:GA; 2.6:1.0 wall:core; 8.38 UA de TG/g) approximately 54 g/100 g. These results corroborate those cited in the literature. Jun-xia et al. (2011) found the maximum values for encapsulation yield when they used only 10 g/100 g core material (orange essential oil) in relation to the wall material (SPI:GA), the values falling with increases in core concentration. Lamprecht, Schafer, and Lehr (2001) obtained close to 90 g/100 g encapsulation yield for capsules of fish oil ethyl esters encapsulated in a matrix of gelatin and GA by complex coacervation.

Simple ADL staging is valid, demonstrating strong, clinically rel

Simple ADL staging is valid, demonstrating strong, clinically relevant associations with health states,

home-related challenges, and need. Both staging systems distinguish well among groups of community-dwelling older adults according to risk of mortality, NHU, or both. System selection should depend on the specific screening needs, MK2206 the outcomes being studied, and the resources available to collect information and assign stages. The slight loss of discrimination with the simple approach with respect to the more severe outcomes of NHU, death, or both, may be outweighed by its ease of use, especially in time-pressured clinical settings. The complex ADL staging approach may be more appropriate where increased discrimination is needed, particularly with respect to examining health care use and mortality, in research, or in the surveillance of large populations where measurement complexity is less of a barrier. In addition, since some ongoing surveys such as the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey use

SCH772984 mouse 2-level ratings of difficulty, our study will help researchers who wish to apply ADL staging to studies using 2-level ADL difficulty responses. By improving our understanding of how patterns and severity of activity limitation influence needs and outcomes, staging can help clinicians design more appropriate interventions. In addition, stages may have utility as covariates in predictive models. Previous studies9 and 17 have found that both diagnoses and disability stages contribute independently to mortality prediction and NHU. There are also potential applications of staging

for population health surveillance of those with disabilities. This standardized, validated, meaningful approach to measuring disability could be used to achieve a greater understanding about how different patterns of disability may contribute to health disparities as called for in the PRKACG 2011 CDC disparity report.2 This in turn can help policymakers design more sound policies. Previous disability staging systems applied to hospital or institutionalized inpatients distinguish the effects of different rehabilitation therapy intensities and are powerful prognostic indicators of functional recovery and adverse outcomes.18, 19 and 20 The complex and simple ADL staging systems would primarily be appropriate for outpatient use and may help clinicians screen patients at risk for various adverse outcomes and with increasing needs for assistive devices or home modifications to allow them to maintain independence. a. SAS Institute Inc, 100 SAS Campus Dr, Cary, NC 27513. “
“The Editor would like to thank every reviewer who cooperated by evaluating the papers submitted to Oceanologia in 2010. We have received kind permission to print the following reviewers’ names: ■ Dr Pekka Alenius (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland) “
“Atmospheric aerosols are an important component of the atmosphere.

The monthly mean values of the aerosol

optical thickness

The monthly mean values of the aerosol

optical thickness in summer 2002 were considerable much than in the other years considered. A particularly high monthly check details mean AOT(500) for 2002 was recorded in August, when it reached 0.323 ± 0.237. For comparison, the monthly mean aerosol optical thicknesses in the Augusts of the other years varied from 0.065 ± 0.050 in 1999 to 0.139 ± 0.079 in 2003 (Figure 4a). The monthly mean values of < α(440, 870) > from June to September of 2002 also reached exceptionally high values ( Figure 4b). The monthly mean values of the aerosol optical thickness AOT(500) in July and August of 1999 were the lowest of all. The aerosol optical thickness above Gotland is influenced not only by periodic and incidental phenomena near the Baltic Sea shore, but also by distant continental phenomena. The origin of air masses advecting over Gotland has an impact on the aerosol optical thickness as well as the Ångström exponent. Based on a synoptic map analysis of AOT(500) measurements over five years, AOT(500) values < 0.100 were linked to the advection of maritime Arctic and maritime Polar air masses over the Baltic area. The advection of continental Polar air above the Baltic (six-day RGFP966 nmr backward trajectories leading from over central Europe) can increase the aerosol optical thickness up to 0.682 (± 0.025),

as observed on 1 April 2002. In summer 2002, fires intensified by persistent drought contributed to the high values of the aerosol optical thickness. Monthly composite satellite

images available from FIRMS (The Fire Information for Resource Management System) show the particularly numerous forest and field fires in northern Europe, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in 2001 and 2002. Moreover, in summer 2002 the modal wind direction was different from that in the other summers considered here. For example, north-easterly winds (40°) were predominant in August 2002, whereas winds from the north-west (300° and 310°) were the most frequent in 1999, 2001 and 2003. The specific synoptic situation in 2002 favoured the transport of aerosol towards Gotland derived from the biomass burning. For example, the biomass burning aerosols transported over the Baltic Sea along with advecting air on 31 July or 12 August 2002 resulted in < AOT(500) >31072002 = 0.661 ± 0.084 and < AOT(500) >12082002 = 0.62 4 ± 0.162. The enlarged emission of aerosol and an Methisazone increase in AOT(500) in spring was presumably related to agricultural waste straw burning (Niemi 2003). It is worth noting that during the time period under scrutiny, cases of air advection from Africa at 3000 m above the Baltic region were observed in spring and summer. However, at lower altitudes the air then usually came from the burning regions of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In such cases the daily mean aerosol optical thicknesses for λ = 500 nm were lower (i.e. < AOT(500) >12042002 = 0.261 ± 0.055, < AOT(500) >12052002 = 0.249 ± 0.038, < AOT(500) >13082002 = 0.416 ± 0.

, 2010), here we studied the participation of 5-lipoxygenase in r

, 2010), here we studied the participation of 5-lipoxygenase in rHPU-activated neutrophil signaling. Western blot analyses of rHPU-activated neutrophils showed significantly increased levels of 5-LO (Fig. 6) while no alterations of cyclooxygenase-2 levels were observed (not shown), suggesting the possible involvement of leukotrienes or 5-HETE in neutrophil’s response to rHPU. Contrasting to these results, stimulation of neutrophils by LPS (1 μg/mL) under the same experimental conditions did not alter their 5-LO content

(not LDK378 concentration shown). Table 1 summarizes these data. Ureases (EC are highly homologous nickel-dependent enzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide (Dixon et al., 1975; Mobley et al., 1995). We have previously reported that canatoxin (Carlini and Guimaraes, 1981), an isoform of jackbean (C. ensiformis) urease ( Follmer et al., 2001), presents biological properties that are independent of its enzyme activity, including activation of blood platelets ( Barja-Fidalgo et al., 1991; Carlini et al., 1985; Ghazaleh et al., 1997) and pro-inflammatory effect ( Barja-Fidalgo et al., 1992; Benjamin et al., 1992). Submicromolar PCI-32765 nmr concentrations of canatoxin induced exocytosis in a number of cell systems in vitro such as platelets, synaptosomes, pancreatic islets, macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells (reviewed in Olivera-Severo et al.,

2006b). Lipoxygenase metabolites were shown to modulate most of canatoxin’s pharmacological effects, either in vivo or in vitro ( Barja-Fidalgo et al., 1991; Benjamin else et al., 1992; Carlini et al., 1985). Jackbean, soybean and Bacillus

pasteurii ureases induce aggregation of platelets in nanomolar concentrations independently of enzyme activity ( Follmer et al., 2004; Olivera-Severo et al., 2006a). More recently, we demonstrated that purified recombinant H. pylori urease also promotes activation of rabbit platelets recruiting the lipoxygenase pathway ( Wassermann et al., 2010). The fact that bacterial and plant ureases evolutionarily conserved the property of activating some cell types may shed new lights into the so far poorly understood biological functions of these proteins, which clearly are not restricted only to their ureolytic activities. The data gathered here show that the cell-free, purified rHPU displays potent pro-inflammatory properties. Fig. 7 summarizes these and other previous results pointing to a relevant participation of HPU in the gastric inflammatory disease caused by H. pylori. The time-course of HPU-induced mouse paw edema is very similar to that described for the rat paw edema induced by canatoxin (Benjamin et al., 1992). rHPU is at least 100-fold more potent than canatoxin in its ability to induce paw edema, although differences in inflammatory reactions of animal models have also to be considered.