, 2010). A firm grasp of the ‘genomic space’ becomes valuable when screening for disease genes, drug targets, etc., likewise, a grasp of the ‘chemical space’ provides insight when screening imaging probes, drug leads etc. The field of molecular biology has spread to omics-level
Crizotinib chemical structure research (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, etc.), and is continually expanding to study whole families of organisms. For instance, the next-generation sequencer is expected to be powerful enough to analyze environmental genomics, also referred to as “metagenomics” ( Schloss and Handelsman, 2003, Handelsman, 2004, Riesenfeld et al., 2004 and Tringe et al., 2005). Similarly, high-throughput mass spectrometry and NMR enable the user to study metabolomics at a family, order or class level, which can be referred to as “meta-metabolomics” ( Raes and Bork, 2008, Turnbaugh and Gordon, 2008, Acker and Auld, 2014 and Monasterio, 2014). Genome analysis has become routine, and individual repositories of genes are being constructed for all known living organisms. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD2281(Olaparib).html Conversely, repositories of the chemical substances that exist in, or affect individual living organisms are in their infant stages and are not well established; much less is known about the interrelationships that exist between the genomic and chemical spaces. To bridge this gap, it becomes essential to establish robust methodology
to predict chemical substances from genomic data and vice versa. Enzymes are the important bridge between the genome and chemical biosynthesis. An enzyme, amylase, was first identified in 1833 by Payen and Persoz (1833). At that time, it was not known that many enzymes are made of proteins. It was in 1926 when Sumner showed that an enzyme, urease, is in fact a protein (for this work he won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry). Sanger and Tuppy, 1951a and Sanger
and Tuppy, 1951b published a method to determine amino-acid sequences in 1951. After that, many more enzymes were identified, and there arose the Unoprostone need for systematic enzyme nomenclature. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) established the Enzyme List in 1961 for this exact purpose (Tipton and Boyce, 2000). This was before the establishment of the Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure in 1972 (Dayhoff, 1972) and the prototype of the GenBank database in 1979 (Goad, 1987). It has now become relatively easy to obtain nucleic acid sequences, and it has become mandatory to determine nucleic acid or amino acid sequences for an enzyme and register them in the GenBank database prior to publishing an original paper discussing said enzyme. Since then, information on genes, protein sequences and structures have been proliferating, creating huge databases that are connected worldwide, such as the amino acid sequence databases PIR (Protein Information Resources) (Barker et al., 1999), Swiss-Prot (Bairoch and Boeckmann, 1991), Entrez Protein (Marchler-Bauer et al.