At some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break,

At some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break, running up and down on the beach surface, whereby a certain amount of water seeps into the permeable beach, generating a complex circulation in the porous medium. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. In the classic paper by Longuet-Higgins & Stewart (1964) the set-up was calculated using the linear model based on the shallow-water equation. Longuet-Higgins (1983) demonstrated that the mean onshore pressure gradient due to wave set-up

drives a groundwater circulation within the beach zone. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near Selleck Pirfenidone the maximum run-up, and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point. This paper presents a theoretical attempt to predict the groundwater circulation induced by the nonlinear wave set-up. The proposed solution is based on the theoretical concept of multiphase flows in the porous media of a beach. The basic value determined experimentally or calculated

in the model is pore pressure in the beach sand. The theoretical model is based on the Biot’s theory, which takes into account the deformation of the soil skeleton, the content of the air/gas dissolved in pore water, and the change in volume and direction of the pore water flow (Biot 1956), resulting from changes in vertical gradients and vertical pore pressure. It is assumed Regorafenib that the deformations of the soil

skeleton conform to the law of linear elasticity. The major issue being examined is the fact that when waves break, they inject air and gases into the porous medium. In addition, gases are produced by organisms living in the sand. Hence, we are dealing with a three-phase medium consisting of a soil skeleton, pore water and gas/air. As a result, the elastic modulus of buy Temsirolimus pore water E′w depends on the degree of water saturation with air ( Verruijt 1969). Analysis of the results of a laboratory experiment showed that in the case where fine sand is saturated with air or gas, the rigidity of the soil is much greater than that of the pore water. The equation for the water pressure in the soil pores can be written in the form (Massel et al. 2005): equation(1) ∇2p−γnKfEw′∂p∂t=0, where Kf – coefficient of permeability, The solution of equation (1) is the following function: equation(2) pxzt=ℜρwgcoshkhcoshψz+hncoshψhn−hexpiφ)ζxt, where equation(3) ψ2=k21−inγωk2KfEw′, where n   is a measure of the porosity (the ratio of free pore volume to total volume), ℜℜ is the real part of a complex number. According to the solution, the presence of air in the porous medium causes a phase delay ϕ between the deflection of the free surface and the pore pressure. Massel et al.

Early clinical studies failed to confirm that adjuvant chemothera

Early clinical studies failed to confirm that adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival. In 2009, a meta-analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials analyzed 3809 patients [7]. The hazard ratio for OS was 0.78 (95% CI = 0.71-0.85) in favor of chemotherapy. The most recently published meta-analysis evaluated data from 34 randomized trials that compared adjuvant systemic chemotherapy to surgery

alone and were conducted in both Asian and Western populations [8]. The risk of death among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was reduced by 15% [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85). To date, two large-scale phase III clinical trials have demonstrated a benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer who underwent curative surgery with D2 lymphadenectomy. One selleck chemicals llc was the Japanese adjuvant chemotherapy trial of TS-1 for gastric cancer (ACTS-GC) trial [9]. In the ACTS-GC trial, 1059 patients with stage II or III gastric cancer who had undergone a D2 lymphadenectomy were randomly assigned to 6 months of S-1 versus surgery Selleckchem LY2109761 alone. Five-year OS was significantly better with S-1 (72% vs 61%). Another study was the Asian multicenter capecitabine and oxaliplatin adjuvant study in stomach cancer

(CLASSIC) trial, in which 1035 patients with stage II/III gastric cancer were randomly assigned to capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) or observation after a D2 gastrectomy [10]. Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a significant improvement in 3-year DFS (74% vs 59%; HR = 0.56) and OS (78% vs 69%; HR = 0.66) [11]. The optimal adjuvant chemotherapy regimen has not yet been established. There are several choices, including S-1 (used in the ACTS-GC trial) [10], XELOX (used in the CLASSIC trial) [11], capecitabine plus

cisplatin (used in the adjuvant Bay 11-7085 chemoradiation therapy in stomach cancer trial) [12] or epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (used in the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional chemotherapy trial) [13]. However, it is unclear which regimen is best or whether a superior alternative approach exists. Docetaxel is a novel antitumor drug that promotes microtubule assembly from tubulin dimers and inhibits the depolymerization of tubulin, thereby stabilizing microtubules in the cell. This results in the inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis [14]. The efficacy of docetaxel monotherapy in AGC is only 15% to 24% [15]. The response rate of 5-FU/platinum-based treatment is approximately 22% to 65% [16]. Cisplatin and 5-FU synergize with docetaxel. The DCF regimen was first shown to have efficacy for the treatment of patients with AGC in a multinational TAX-325 trial [17]. On the basis of these results, docetaxel was approved in the United States and Europe for AGC. The role of the DCF regimen in the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer is not clear. In this study, we show that the DCF regimen may also have a survival benefit when used as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

Rather than these, health problems may arise because of the consi

Rather than these, health problems may arise because of the considerable quantity of asbestos-containing wastes that were spread

all over the affected area from the fire retardant coatings, heat, fire, and acid resistant gaskets, Bioactive Compound Library datasheet pipe insulation, ceiling insulation, flooring, roofing, etc. of the damaged buildings. Large quantities of many chemicals from various other sources might have been spread in the tsunami hit areas and also reached the nearby coastal environment. For example, as per the Law Concerning Special Measures against PCB waste which was enforced in Japan on 15th July 2001 (http://www.jesconet.co.jp/e.g./pcblaw.htm), PCB waste holders are to dispose of all PCB wastes by July 2016. Since the deadline is five years away from now, considerable quantities of PCB wastes might have been

in stock in the tsunami hit areas, and thus washed away and Ion Channel Ligand Library clinical trial spread all over. Small stocks of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and also various medicinal chemicals which were kept at the hospitals and commercial establishments in the tsunami washed areas are now in the environment of northeastern Japan, posing a complicated threat. Many industries in the area, involved in manufacturing processes using hundreds of organic and inorganic chemicals, were also inundated by tsunami waters

releasing them into the surrounding marine environment. Part of all the above wastes reached the coastal environment when the seawater receded to the sea. These materials, nearly before and after settlement to the seafloor will get decomposed and may release considerable quantities of the chemicals into the water for a long period of time, thus leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification. This may lead to toxic implications in marine life especially fish and those in the apex of the marine food chain. For example, cetaceans can biomagnify chemicals like PCBs to 107 times than in the ambient water as they have high lipid stores and weak metabolic capacity for chemicals like PCBs when compared with terrestrial mammals (Tanabe et al., 1984). Scientists are now worrying about a possible build-up of radioactive material in edible marine and terrestrial biota of the tsunami hit area that may reach humans. Along with that, there is also concern about a variety of other chemicals which can have short and long term effects on wildlife and humans. Long term survey of the soil, sediment, water and biota including human should be carried out on the build-up of many toxic chemicals, to avoid any possible catastrophe by such chemicals.

53%) of the combination group and in four patients (23 53%) of th

53%) of the combination group and in four patients (23.53%) of the chemotherapy group. No significant difference was found between the two groups (23.53% selleck chemicals vs 23.53%; P > 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed ( Table 3). The results of our study suggest that CT-PFNECII combined with second-line chemotherapy produced a higher response rate and improved survival than second-line chemotherapy in platinum-pretreated stage IV NSCLC. In addition, side effects of this combination

therapy were generally well tolerated. Compared with ORR of 11.76% and DCR of 35.29% in the chemotherapy group, the combination therapy provided an ORR of 23.53% and a DCR of 58.82% in platinum-pretreated stage IV NSCLC. Of note, one complete tumor regression was achieved in a patient by two cycles of combination treatment. More importantly, all patients who had lung tumor–related chest pain or dyspnea before our treatment achieved significant symptom relief even within 72 hours after CT-PFNECII treatment. Our pilot

study suggests that CT-PFNECII combined with second-line selleck products chemotherapy has potent antitumor activity against platinum-pretreated NSCLC tumors. The benefit of our combination treatment in terms of survival outcomes was also quite encouraging. Considering that 29.41% of patients in our study population were platinum resistant (five patients in each arm) and 58.82% of the patients (10 of 17) received CT-PFNECII two times, the PFS of 5.4 months and OS of 9.5 months by our combination treatment were more valuable. The side effects of CT-PFNECII such as transient mild pain and cough in patients with lung cancer were minimal and well tolerated because only quite small amount of cisplatin and quite low concentration of ethanol were injected intratumorally. In addition, mild pneumothorax Digestive enzyme and mild hemoptysis relating to the procedure were uncommon because we used a 22-gauge fine needle under the precise guidance of CT. Furthermore, combination of CT-PFNECII with second-line chemotherapy did not worsen common side effects of chemotherapy. No significant differences in chemotherapy-related adverse events in the two groups

were noted, indicating clinical safety of CT-PFNECII. We previously found that 5% ethanol could potently inhibit ABCG2 pump, which is a major drug transporter in protecting platinum-resistant NSCLC cells from cytotoxic agents. We also found that 5% ethanol-cisplatin injected intratumorally could eradicate cisplatin-resistant lung tumors by killing chemoresistant lung CSCs and normal lung cancer cells [10]. We speculate that the residual unkilled but damaged tumor cells in the 5% ethanol-cisplatin treatment group might be more fragile and sensitive to second-line chemotherapy agents. As a result, we speculate that CT-PFNECII treatment might have synergistic effects with systemic second-line chemotherapies, such as docetaxel or pemetrexed, in controlling platinum-pretreated NSCLC.

Novel developments include microspheres-enhanced thrombolysis for

Novel developments include microspheres-enhanced thrombolysis for improved drug delivery and enhancement of microcirculation [5] and [6]. A recent pilot study has tested the feasibility of using an intra-arterial high-energy US catheter for recanalization [7]. Although many promising advances have been made in the field of sonothrombolysis, “diagnostic” transcranial US remains the only method that click here has been shown to be effective and safe. The aim of this review is to provide an

overview of confirmed evidence and perspectives on sonothrombolysis for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The thrombolytic effect of “diagnostic” transcranial US in acute intracranial occlusion was discovered more than 10 years ago at 3 stroke therapy centers, independently of each other. At the Center for Noninvasive Brain Perfusion Studies at the University of Texas-Houston Medical School, physicians

noticed that patients receiving continuous transcranial PD0332991 purchase US monitoring for determination of rtPA-associated recanalization more frequently exhibited a favorable clinical course in comparison to patients without monitoring [8]. Based on these results, a randomized, multicenter clinical trial, known as the Combined Lysis of Thrombus in Brain Ischemia Using Transcranial Ultrasound and Systemic tPA (CLOTBUST) trial, was performed to study this effect. A similar effect was observed with TCCS in the stroke unit at the University of Lübeck, Germany [9] (Fig. 1). In contrast to the multicenter CLOTBUST trial, this monocenter, randomized study also included patients with contraindications to rtPA. In addition, neurologists at the University Hospital SPTBN5 Ostrava, Czech Republic, observed a similar effect in patients with acute cerebral artery occlusion during examination with TCCS [10]. The CLOTBUST trial included a total of 126 patients with occlusion of the main segment of the stem or branches of the MCA. All subjects were treated with standard IV rtPA and were additionally

randomized for a 2-h insonation with transcranial Doppler (TCD). The primary endpoint (complete recanalization or substantial clinical improvement) was more frequently reached in the sonothrombolysis group (40%) than in the standard therapy group (30%). No significant differences were found in the clinical results obtained after 24 h and after 3 months. However, a clear tendency for functional independence after 3 months was detected in the sonothrombolysis group. The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) was the same for each group (4.8%) [1]. Some limitations of the CLOTBUST trial were the inclusion of an inhomogeneous patient sample (MCA main stem and branch occlusions) and the definition of the primary endpoint. The US imaging of the thrombus, carried out with blind TCD sonography by means of a probe attached to the head, may also have been inadequate, particularly in branch occlusions or occlusions of the main stem without residual flow.

The modes and mechanisms of how this is actually achieved however

The modes and mechanisms of how this is actually achieved however, remain to be clarified [8 and 9]. Various factors, such as proximity effects [10], acid–base catalysis, near attack conformation [11], strain [12], dynamics [13], desolvation [14] etc. contribute to lowering

the activation barrier as compared to solution reactions. The individual effect of these factors is moderate and results in a rate acceleration < 104 fold. The only factor with major impact on catalysis is the electrostatic preorganization [15••], which can provide 107 to Nutlin-3a supplier 1010 fold rate acceleration [16]. On the basis of the Marcus theory electrostatic preorganization can be

quantified by the reorganization energy (λ) [ 17]. This expresses the work of the protein while it responds to changing charge distribution of the reactant along the reaction pathway ( Figure 1). Although reorganization energy is the concerted effect of all enzyme dipoles, group contributions could be approximated (see GDC-0068 mouse Box 1). The reorganization energy (λ) was introduced by Marcus for electron transfer reactions [ 17] and establishes relationship between the reaction free energy (ΔG°) and the activation barrier (Δg‡). It can be approximated as: equation(1) Δgij‡≅(ΔGij0+λij)24λij It refers to intersection of free energy functionals of two states (i,j), corresponding to

reactants and products of an elementary most reaction step. In enzymes reorganization energy expresses the effect of pre-oriented dipoles, which upon charging the TS costs significantly less to reorganize than corresponding solvent dipoles [ 45]. Reorganization energy decrease by enzymes originates in two factors ( Figure 4): (i) decreasing ΔG°, (ii) shifting the diabatic free energy functions as compared to each other. Reorganization energy is computed as the vertical difference between the free energies of the system at reactant and product equilibrium geometries on the diabatic product free energy curve (Figure 1): equation(2) λ=FPS(ξRS)−FPS(ξPS)λ=FPS(ξRS)−FPS(ξPS)where ξRS and ξPS are the values of the reaction coordinate at the reactant and product states and FPS(ξ) is the diabatic product state free energy function. Computing reorganization energy requires the reactant and product potential energy surfaces, which are available within the framework of the Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) method [46]. According to Eqn (2) reorganization energy can be obtained by moving the system from the reactant to the product states using for example Free Energy Perturbation method and then the diabatic product state can be calculated by the Umbrella Sampling technique.

These motifs interact with Trp-Trp (WW) domain-containing protein

These motifs interact with Trp-Trp (WW) domain-containing proteins [ 29]. Accordingly, atrophin-1 interacting partners include WW domain containing members of the Nedd-4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Nedd-4 proteins click here regulate ubiquitin-mediated trafficking, protein degradation, and nuclear translocation of various transcription factors [ 30 and 31]. In Drosophila, Atrophin binds to the histone methyltransferase G9a and mediates mono-methylation and di-methylation of H3K9. In humans, RERE also associates with G9a to methylate histones. Drosophila Atrophin and RERE interact with G9a through conserved SANT (switching-defective protein 3 (Swi3), adaptor 2 (Ada2), nuclear receptor co-repressor

(N-CoR) and transcription factor (TF)IIIB) domains. Atrophin-1 does not contain a SANT domain but interacts with RERE, suggesting that Atrophin-1 and RERE might act together to regulate histone methylation [ 32]. SCA1 is caused by polyglutamine expansion of the Ataxin-1 gene, which encodes two proteins — Ataxin-1 and alt-Ataxin-1. Alt-Ataxin-1 is produced by an out-of-reading-frame coding sequence within Ataxin-1. These gene products can interact with each other and with poly(A)(+)

RNA [ 33••]. An early screen performed in Drosophila to identify modifiers of SCA1-mediated neurodegeneration identified Alectinib mouse genes important for RNA processing and transcriptional regulation, [ 34]. Ataxin-1 also inhibits transcription from the Hey1 promoter, a crucial gene in Notch signaling, where it is recruited through interaction with the recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region (RBPJκ) transcription factor [ 35•]. It has also

been proposed that Ataxin-1 plays a general role in transcriptional repression. Polyglutamine expansion of Ataxin-1 increases its interaction with poly-glutamine (Q) tract-binding Cell press protein-1 (PQBP-1) which, in turn, stimulates PQBP-1 binding to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and reduces Pol II phosphorylation and transcription [ 36]. Ataxin-1 associates with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and overexpression of Ataxin-1 in mice stimulates PP2A activity. However, whereas overexpression of wild-type Ataxin-1 led to a 59% increase in PP2A activity, overexpression of polyglutamine-expanded Ataxin-1 resulted in a 238% increase [37•]. PP2A affects H3S10 phosphorylation, and its overexpression causes a genome-wide reduction in H3 phosphorylation [38]. The effect of Ataxin-1 PolyQ expansion on H3 phosphorylation has not been examined. Polyglutamine expansion in the Ataxin-2 gene contributes to two diseases. SCA2 is caused by expansions of 32–200 CAGs, and intermediate expansions of 27–39 CAGs were identified as a genetic risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [39 and 40•]. At this time, intermediate expansion of Ataxin-2 is the best-known predictor of ALS [39].

The Gulf of Gdańsk is situated on the southern Baltic Sea coast

The Gulf of Gdańsk is situated on the southern Baltic Sea coast. The time necessary for a complete water exchange with the open sea is about 15 days (Witek et al. 2003). The gulf is supplied by freshwater from the River Vistula, which slightly reduces its salinity in comparison to the Baltic Proper (6–7 vs. 7–8). The surface water samples were collected August 31, 2008 on the road bridge at Kiezmark over the Vistula (KIE) and also during a r/v ‘Baltica’ cruise at four different stations (ZN2, E53, E54, E62; Figure 1) along a salinity gradient ranging from 0.33 (river station

KIE) to 7.25 (sea station E62). Conductivity, CP-868596 cell line temperature and depth were measured using a CTD-rosette from on board the vessel. Primary production was determined using the 14C method (Evans et al. 1987, HELCOM 1988). For measurements of chlorophyll a and phaeopigment concentrations, Selleckchem PD0332991 a fluorometric method with acetone extraction was used ( Evans et al. 1987). The assimilation number (AN), which shows the efficiency of phytoplankton production, was calculated by dividing the primary production by the chlorophyll

a concentration. For the phytoplankton analysis, 200 ml of the surface water samples were immediately fixed with acidic Lugol’s solution to a final concentration of 0.5% (Edler 1979). Subsamples of 20 ml were analysed using an inverted microscope Olympus IMT-2 with phase contrast and DIC. The individual phytoplankton cells were counted according to the Helsinki Commission recommendations (HELCOM 2001) and the biomass was calculated according to Olenina et al. (2006). Samples for measuring the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were stored in the dark at –20°C. Nitrocellulose filters (Millipore, 0.45 μm pore size) previously rinsed with deionised water were used for filtering the defrosted samples before analysis. DOC analyses were conducted by high-temperature combustion (HTC) (Shimadzu TOC-5000 analyser, Japan) ( Dunalska et al. 2012). The quality of the dissolved organic matter was measured by using specific ultraviolet

absorbance (SUVA), defined NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase as the UV absorbance of a water sample at a given wavelength, normalised against DOC concentration. A spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1601PC, Japan) was used to measure the UV absorbance (at 260 nm) in the water samples ( Fukushima et al. 1996). Nutrients such as nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphate, silicates, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were freshly analysed on board, according to the recommendation of the Baltic Monitoring Programme (Grasshoff et al. 1983, UNESCO 1983, BMEPC 1988). Water samples were fixed with formaldehyde (final 1%), stained for 5 min with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, Sigma Aldrich, USA) (final 1 μg ml−1), filtered on polycarbonate black membrane filters and stored at –20°C.

95, coverage no less than 0 9, and reference gene had annotation

95, coverage no less than 0.9, and reference gene had annotation of putative or hypothetical. To define genes with signal peptide, we use SignalP version 4.1 ( Petersen et al., 2011) to identify genes with signal peptide with default parameters. TMHMM 2.0 ( Krogh et al., 2001) was used to identify buy EPZ015666 genes with transmembrane helices. The draft genome of B. agri 5-2 revealed a genome size of 5,513,716 bp and a G + C content of 54.15% (146 contigs with N50 of 97,214 bp). These contigs contain 5260 coding sequences (CDSs), 91 tRNAs and 6 incomplete rRNA operons (2 small subunit rRNA and 4 large subunit rRNAs). A total of 5067 protein-coding

genes were assigned as putative function or hypothetical proteins. 3624 genes were categorized into COGs functional groups (including putative or hypothetical genes). The properties and the statistics of the genome are summarized in Table 1. Consistent with its metabolic versatility and environmental LDE225 solubility dmso adaptability, B. agri strain 5-2 possesses extensive transport capabilities. 517 genes encode transport related proteins for amino acid, inorganic ions, carbohydrates, nucleotide and lipid found in the genome. Two putative alkane 1-monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate monooxygenase, one putative alkanesulfonate transporter, one putative sulfate permease and five putative sulfate transporters were identified in the draft genome

( Table 2). Alkane 1-monooxygenase was found as one of the key enzymes responsible for the aerobic transformation of midchain-length n-alkanes (C5 to C16) and in some cases even longer

alkanes ( van Beilen and Funhoff, 2007). It is hypothesized that sulfate transporters and alkanesulfonate transporter may be responsible for organosulfur compound degradation ( Erwin et al., 2005 and Van Hamme et al., 2013). Moreover, a genome alignment of the only two sequenced B. agri genomes (B. agri 5-2 and B. agri BAB-2500 ( Joshi et al., 2013)) Akt inhibitor showed that some functional regions are highly homologous between two assemblies. The alignment also reveals some discrepancies between them, some short stretches of the 5-2 genome absent from the contigs in BAB-2500 ( Fig. 1). For example, none of the alkane monooxygenases were identified in the genome of BAB-2500 by further genomic analysis. In summary, the genomic data of strain 5-2 may provide insights into the mechanism of microorganisms adapt to the petroleum reservoir after chemical flooding. This whole genome sequence project is deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JATL00000000. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Fig. S1.   Phylogenetic tree highlighting the position of Brevibacillus agri strain 5-2 relative to other type strains within the genus Brevibacillus. Numbers at the branching nodes are percentages of bootstrap values based on 1000 replications.

This first-generation use of stem cells in surgery was followed b

This first-generation use of stem cells in surgery was followed by the attempt to target the skeleton systemically through intravenous infusion, in order to treat systemic (genetic) skeletal diseases [73]. This approach was not as biologically grounded as the surgical approach, given the inability of systemically infused skeletal stem cells to home routinely and efficiently to the skeleton [74]. Strategies to improve homing of skeletal stem cells are being pursued [75] and [76], as covered elsewhere

in this issue. Of note, other hurdles would still stand in the way, even if the homing issue were Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor resolved; that is, to reconcile the strategy of cell replacement with the slow turnover time of the skeleton. Regeneration of blood and epithelial tissues rests directly on their rapid turnover, which translates into rapid regeneration. In bone, turnover is slow, and regeneration would have to recapitulate development and post-natal growth of skeletal segment, but in a highly accelerated way. Beyond the use of cells as therapeutic tools or vehicles, skeletal stem cells provide a novel angle on disease mechanisms, which might be targeted, in the end, by a pharmacological approach. More in general,

the role that rare diseases have come to play in medicine cannot escape attention. Since the Orphan Drug Act signed by President Reagan in 1983, rare diseases have become a profitable pathway for pharma industry. In the same way as several drugs developed as Belnacasan mouse STK38 “orphan” later came to represent innovation of much broader impact and with much broader market, rare diseases encrypt fundamental developmental mechanisms, targeting of which has often broad implications. Advances in understanding bone development have been spectacular over the past 30 years; capitalizing on these developments, and focusing on the cell biology

of stem cells and the stromal system in bone predicts further advances in all those instances in which disease mechanisms rest on disruption of adaptive physiology of bone as an organ. The biological entity defined by the work of Friedenstein and Owen, and others, i.e. a putative stem cell for skeletal tissues found the bone marrow stroma, was renamed “Mesenchymal stem cell” in 1991 [77]. At about the same time, the first company was created to develop “mesenchymal stem cells” as a commercial product. The overlap of the “mesenchymal stem cells” in bone marrow with the biological object previously called “osteogenic” or “stromal” stem cell is obvious from the key papers that introduced “MSCs” [77] and [78]. It is also crystallized in the key criteria later issued for defining “MSCs” and widely accepted: i.e.